(An update to this marks overview for May 2014 is now complete. All new marks are in the proper alphabetical order but the text will be red and in italics for a short time so as to highlight the newly added marks. There are about 200 new marks.)
A few years ago I posted on the Gotheborg Discussion Board (Gotheborg.com) an overview of Republic of China marks. Since then I have acquired many more different marks, as well as more examples of known marks. The last overview showed examples of all types of marks from the Republic Period, including reign marks, ‘CHINA’ marks, private kiln marks, hall marks, commendation marks and ‘circle’ marks. This updated overview will concentrate on the private kiln and company marks, hall and commendation marks, and will also include artist’s marks and seals, where possible.
The main thing that separates Republic marks from the marks of all previous times is the enormous number of private kiln and company, maker’s or shop marks. When one looks at the most comprehensive English language lineup of Chinese marks, in ‘The New and Revised Handbook of Marks on Chinese Ceramics’ by Gerald Davison, 2010, almost 3400 different marks are listed. Some are different combinations of reign marks but there are still over 3000 marks to cover the marks of all the Chinese Dynasties from the Shang 1600BCE to the Guangxu reign ending in 1908. A relatively small but important number of Republic marks are also included. There are, by definition, no reign marks in the Republic Period, so I queried, what constituted the ‘non-reign’ marks in the previous dynasties? From what I can glean, they were either hall marks (so were still produced in the Imperial kilns, if genuine), potters’ marks and painters’ marks, but by far the greatest number were commendation or aspirational marks, referring to “the destination or ownership of an object, or (to) carry a message of commendation or good wishes” (From Davison’s book). Some marks were used to commemorate a very special event, and some were simply date marks. However, the relative proportions of these categories of marks changed during the Republic with reign marks (nearly all, if not all, apocryphal – there is still some dispute over whether the Hongxian or Jurentang marks can be labelled as reign marks) still making up the bulk of marks, but with private kiln or company marks making up the large majority of the rest. Hallmarks and commendations were still reasonably common, but the commendations moved location from the base of the porcelains to the written inscriptions on the sides of the porcelains in the Late Qing and Republic eras. Below, I will list almost 400 different marks from this era, and I am sure there are many more.
So these Late Qing and Republic aged porcelains have another very important attribute. Many of the non-imperial derived patterns have inscriptions, usually in black enamel and which include some or all of the following elements: poem; artist’s name and/or seal; calligrapher’s name; cyclical date; commendation or other wishes; place of manufacture; owner or patron. This gives us an enormous amount of information not accessible from the porcelains of earlier eras. I emphasise this aspect because it actually allows us to build up a picture of artists and companies and ideas and patterns which is unconceivable for earlier porcelains. Added to this is the fact that some of the Republic Period artists are still alive, or their offspring are, and they have been able to outline their histories first hand.
Davison states that more Chinese ceramics are unmarked rather than marked, but this is definitely not the case during the Republic Period. Very very few pieces are unmarked. The original reason for this may have been the requirement for place of origin to be shown on all imported items to the USA after 1891, but there must be other reasons as well, including the fact that there were so many new private companies itching to advertise their presence.
Because I have decided to include artist’s marks, the period covered by this overview will now stretch back into the later part of the Qing dynasty, into the Guangxu period, so as to capture the marks, seals and relevant inscriptions (dates) of the Qianjiang painters and their like. The hallmarks of the Republic period are for the most part reissues of older hall marks from the earlier Qing reigns, but with a few that were new to the Republic, such as Ju Ren Tang Zhi and Zhao De Tang Zhi.
I have tried very hard to get these marks translated correctly, both from members on the Gotheborg Discussion Board when I or others posted items for translation and also by hiring a couple of young Chinese translators here in Sydney. However, some of the translations may be incorrect or incomplete and I invite anyone to offer alternatives or corrections wherever possible.
As you will see below, by far the most common mark colour is overglaze iron red. This is partly because my collecting habits lie with the enamelled wares of this period rather than blue & white or monochromes. However, in this period, overwhelmingly more enamelled pieces were made compared to blue & white or monochromes, especially when compared to previous eras. This is mainly a result of the upheaval of the times and the breakdown of dynastic rule and control of the imperial kilns etc, but also because most of the artists of the time actually desired and preferred to work in this style. So the main colour was overglaze iron red, but there were several types of red – that is a discussion in itself. There was also a range of blues in the overglaze, enamelled blue marks, from royal blue to teal blue and grey blue. And so too the underglaze blue marks.
Although there are many fine examples of handwritten marks in this Late Qing and Republic period, most marks are stamped. There is no doubt a lot more to discuss regarding this aspect as well……
So, to the perennial problem, how to categorise the marks? How to divide them up?
Let’s see? A typical mark might comprise the place name first (e.g. Jiangxi, Jingdezhen, Jiujiang, Nanchang, Shanghai), then the Company or Shop name (e.g. Qing Hua, Guang Hua, Xin Zhong Hua, Da Xing etc) or Artist’s name (e.g. Chan Yu Chen, Guo Xie Cheng, Yong Xing Chang, Li Hua Chang etc) second and then the ‘designation’ (e.g. Gongsi, Ming Ci, Chu Pin, Zhen Pin, Zao). Some or all of these elements are typically present in a private kiln mark. So 6-7 characters are the norm. In some cases the place name is left off, as can be the ‘designation’. A single company may have several different ways of hand writing its mark and many different mark stamps would have been used over time as well. The same range can apply to marks with an artist’s name.
Hallmarks tend to be simpler and usually comprise just 4 characters, often involving Tang and Zhi, and often revisiting and reusing hall marks from the earlier Qing reigns. It is really interesting to note how the Chinese translate the Republic Period hallmarks. In the translations of several chinese language books on Chinese ceramics hallmarks such as Ju Ren Tang Zhi or Da De Tang Zhi are variously translated as Made in Ju Ren Tang (when the chinese pinyin is usually translated into English) or Ju Ren Tang Shop, Da De Tang Shop. This is to suggest that the Chinese writers do not consider these marks to be real hallmarks as in the past, but the equivalent of shop marks. It would be very interesting to know about this in more detail.
Then the next question is in what order do I list the marks? Alphabetical is the obvious solution, but this will emphasise the place names as these are usually put first. However, this is the simplest and most direct method and I have done that here.
I have decided not to show images of the pieces, just the marks. The main reason is so as not to provide a library for fakesters and copyists to use. However, I would love to share these images with you because they tell a very interesting story – so if anyone wants me to show the corresponding image for a particular mark just let me know and I will post it.
A few basics about the designations (the parts of the mark, usually at the end or in the middle, which pertain to the type of organisation or person involved with the manufacture):
- ‘Ming Ci’ means ‘famous’ or ‘name-brand’ porcelain
- ‘Pin’ means Product
- ‘Zhen Pin’ means Precious Product
- ‘Chu Pin’ means Product, with the “chu” referring to an item that is released to the world
- ‘Zhi’ means Made in or by, has the connotation of “fabricated by”
- ‘Gong Si’ or ‘Gongsi’ means Company in the legal sense – ‘Youxian Gongsi’ means Ltd. or Inc. and can sometimes be shortened just to ‘You’
- ‘Cang’ means Collection of
- ‘Zao’ means made by or in, tends to have the connotation of “manufactured by” in addition to “made”
- ‘Xie’ , “to write”, written by?
- Zi zao means made on the premises
- ‘Shi’ = family, also clan, most often referring to someone’s surname
- ‘Hua’ means painted by
- ‘Hui’ means painted by as well, but may have subtle difference in meaning?
- ‘Zuo’ means ‘Made by’
- ‘Zhai’ or ‘Zhai Zhi’ refers to Studio of
Please add any others or correct or refine those above (thank you to D. Lane for the corrections!).
I do not read Chinese, so some of the translations into pinyin below may, when translated, be very obviously NOT a company or artist name and may be a simple commendation or other subject. I would appreciate any corrections. Thanks.
LATE QING & REPUBLIC MARKS (all are base marks unless noted, the numbers are my own file designations):
Ai Sheng_18_43, From the workshop of Wu Aisheng, artist, dating 1910-1926, Innovations and Creations book
Bai Shi Qi Chang_12_15, Commendation mark meaning ‘Prosperity for hundreds of Generations’
Bao Long Chu Pin_01_11, Bao Long is a company name, so Product of Bao Long
Bao Long Chu Pin_25_21, product of Bao Long
Bao Sheng Chang Hao_20_14, painted by Bao Sheng Chang
Bao Yong Xuan Yong_3_33, No info, looks like a commendation of some type?
Bi Xi_18_48 Bi Xi_18_48, Studio mark of Duan Bilan, means een Jade Stream 1912-1925, Simon Kwan. Davison’s marks book notes that this seal mark was used by Wang Qi
Bi Yun Xuan Zhi_18_80, ‘Made for the Treasure of Azure Clouds’, from the Great Fortune book
Bing Rong Sheng Zao 1918_13_24, Made by Bing Rong Sheng. This is probably the company name because the inscription indicates that this was painted by Song Lin Xuan in the Wu Wu year, 1918
Cai Bo Sen Zhi_28_18, made for or by Cai Bo Sen. This example and the ‘Cai Yan Cheng’ example just below are from the same maker, and are millefleur small lidded serving bowls
Cai Hua Tang Zhi_4_05, ‘Hall of Brilliant Splendour’ – Qianlong & Jiaqing hallmark but on a Republic period example
Cai Yan Cheng Zhi_27_43, made for or by Cai Yan Cheng, see ‘Cai Bo Sen’ above
Cao Kun Chang Zao_14_13, Made by Cao Kun Chang, company or artist
Changjiang Ci She Chu Pin_01_3, Changjiang Porcelain Association. Chang Jiang is the river which flows through Jingdezhen, and probably aslo a place in Jingdezhen?
Changjiang Cui Yun Xuan Hua 1919_3_34, Drawn in the “Green Cloud Balcony” of Changjiang. Date of 1919 in the inscription, Chang Jiang is the river which flows through Jingdezhen.
Chao Ding Chang Zao 1918_13_25, Made by Chao Ding Chang? From the inscription, In the Wu Wu year, 1918
Chen Fa Xin Zao_20_44, made by Chen Fa Xin
Chen Fu Xing Zao_10_27, Inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Chen Fu Xing Xie’, made by Chen Fu Xing
Chen Wan Ren Zeng_5_39, Chen Wan Ren is probably the name of the buyer or patron of these wares, then given by him as a present, and to show his wealth to the recipients.
Chen Wan Ren Zeng_5_40, Chen Wan Ren is probably the name of the buyer or patron of these wares, then given by him as a present, and to show his wealth to the recipients.
Chen Yong Tai Zao 1915_14_56, Made by Chen Yong Tai, the artist, and from the inscription, made at Chang Jiang in the Yi Mao year, 1915
Chen You Fa Zao_26_53, made by Chen You Fa
Cheng Guang Hua Xuan_21_12
Cheng Long Wan Pin 1924_14_07, Cheng Long Wan Pin means “Successful Grand Joyful Product”. Inscription reads in part “Jia Zi Zhi Xia Yue Huang ? ?” = Summer 1924
Chu He Ciye Gongsi_5_38, Chu He Porcelain Company
Chung Hua Ming Kuo_5_11, No info
Da De Tang Zhi_18_14, from the Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain book, which translates this seeming hallmark as ‘Dadetang Shop’, held in the Pingxiang City Museum
Da Ri Qiu Lu Zhai Zao_07_08, No info, made by Da Ri Qiu Lu Zhai or is this a commendation?
Da Xin Zhen Pin_5_28, Product of Da Xin company
Da Xin Zhen Pin_13_04, Product of Da Xin company
Da Ya Qi_29_22
Dai Heng Feng Zao_15_23, Made by Dai Heng Feng company, and from the inscription the artist appears to be Bai ?
Dai Yu Sheng Zao 1907_14_50, Made by the artist Dai Yu Sheng in the Ding Wei year 1907, from the inscription
De Hua Mei Xing Chu Pin 1938_25_36, with an inscription which places the piece in the 26th year of the Republic, i.e. 1938
De Ji Zhen Pin_23_49
De Ji Zhen Pin 1933_24_29, with a Gui You, 1933, date in the inscription. Possible artist Zou Wen Hou
De Long Zhen Pin_4_15, Product of De Long company
De Long Zhen Pin_4_16, Product of De Long company
Deng Yin_12_10, No info, presumably Deng Yin artist or studio name
Deng Yin_12_11, No info, presumably Deng Yin artist or studio name
Deng Yin_12_11is, This is a seal mark on the front of the plate above
Du Jiu Shan Bei_10_13, Translated as ‘Gamble, Wine, Portion, Cup’ – on a small gambling cup! This has been discussed on the Gotheborg Discussion Board
Dun Ben Tang Zhi_28_56, Hall of Fundamental Honesty, a Daoguang period hallmark originally, but this example is Guangxu or Republic period
Dun Hou Tang Zhi_22_21, Hall of Honesty and Generosity, a Daoguang hallmark, the examples might be of the period or later Qing
Duo Fu Duo Shou Tang Zhi_5_32, ‘Made for the Hall of Abundant Happiness and Long Life’ – a Daoguang hallmark, but this is probably Republic in age.
En Shou Tang Zhi_3_29, A hallmark, not in Davison’s book so possibly Republic, but shape and decoration do look mid-late C19th.
Fang Ping Tai Hao 1916_14_58, Painted by Fang Ping Tao in 1916
Feng Peng Yuan Tang_11_21, untranslated Hall or commendation mark (might be artist/company name?) but Republic
Feng Yu Chu Pin_13_01, Product of Feng Yu company or artist
Fu Cheng Yong Zao_28_09, made by Fu Cheng Yong
Fu Shou Yong Chang_11_17, Good Fortune and ?, commendation mark?
Fuliang Tao Zhi 1939_5_01, According to S.Kwan this is a factory mark. Jingdezhen is in the county of Fuliang which is in the Province of Jiangxi.
Fu Xing Chang Zao 1923_16_23, Made by Fu Xing Chang, artist, confirmed in the inscription and dated to the Gui Hai year, 1923
Gao Bo Sheng Hao 1896_14_38
Gao Bo Sheng Hao 1896_14_38_Xiao Shan Zuo _i Painted by Gao Bo Sheng, made by Xiao Shan, or other way around? Is this the same Gao Bo Sheng who became the Superintendant of Jingdezhen under the rule of Yuan Shikai?
Gao Heng Sheng Zao1902_14_43, Made by Gao Heng Sheng and with the inscription adding the date of 1902, Ren Yin.
Ge Se Lao ? You Se Ke Zhen 1917_14_18, As translated by kh chan (Gotheborg Discussion Board) the mark is really like an advertisement “selling all kinds of old brands at a trusted price and quality”! In the inscription a date of 1917.
Gong Qin Tang Zhi_07_20, ‘Hall of Diligence in Public Affairs’ – Daoguang Hallmark, but Republic era bowl.
Gong Xing Chang Hua_15_38 Presumably a company or owner’s name, from a large dinner set of over 100 pieces.
Gu Huan_18_23, Studio mark of Pan Taoyu, means Ancient Joy, Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain book, held in the Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum.
Gu Huan 1920_18_57, Studio mark of Pan Taoyu, means Ancient Joy, dated to 1920 in the inscription, S. Kwan’s Republic Porcelain book.
Gu Huan 1925_18_37, Studio mark of Pan Taoyu, means Ancient Joy, dated to 1925 in the inscription, Innovations and Creations book.
Gu Shi_18_25, Studio name of Tian Hexian, means Ancient Stone, from Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain book, held in the Jiangxi Provincial Museum.
Gu Shi 1933_18_58, Studio name of Tian Hexian, means Ancient Stone, from S.Kwan’s Republic Porcelain book, dated to 1933 in the inscription.
Gu Yue Xuan Zhi_4_03, “Made for the Pavillion of the Ancient Moon”, a Yongzheng and Qianlong Hall mark according to Davison, but in this case early C20th vases. This type of porcelain – the originals from the early Qing period – is said to be the model upon which the ‘imperial’ porcelain of the Hongxian reign (1916) were meant to be based.
Gu Yue Xuan Zhi_18_16, see above but in this reference, the Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain, and held in the Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum, it is translated as Guyuexuan Shop!
Gu Yue Xuan_5_35, A similar hallmark to the one above without the ‘zhi’, but of late Guangxu or Republic age.
Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1887_13_15, Mark says “Made under supervision of the Imperial Kiln”. Inscription indicates that the vase was made in 1887, and is painted by Xu Pinheng. It is very likely that Xu Pinheng was one of the few employed by the Imperial kiln as a contract porcelain painter. This vase was discussed on the Gotheborg List.
Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_16_18, See above. This inscription indicates that the artist was Xu Pin Heng, was painted in the Bing Xu year, 1886 at Chang Jiang, Ke Ci
Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_21_17, Official Ware made, see above. The inscription gives a Bing Xu 1886 date
Guan Yao Nei Zao_08_02, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, with the current hypothesis that this is the mark used for private use of the Imperial kiln when it was not filling orders for the Emperors. Examples show a range of quality. Late C19th-Early C20th period – the earliest dating is 1887 and the latest dating below is 1907.
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1891_13_12, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln – inscription alludes to a Yu Zhu Ming as artist made in 1891
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_13_14, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, signed Zhu Shao Quan in the inscription, and dated 1894
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1907_3_18, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, Ding Wei 1907 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao_3_28, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln
Guan Yao Nei Zao_4_37, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln
Guan Yao Nei Zao_5_14, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln
Guan Yao Nei Zao_5_41, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln
Guan Yao Nei Zao_13_10, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_13_13, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1890_14_29, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1890 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_30, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_31, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_32, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_33, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1893 in the inscriptions
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_34, Made in the Government
(Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1893 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_35, Made in the Government
(Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1893 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_36, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, signed by Lei Guang Heng in the inscription, dated to 1894
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_37, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, signed by Mei Chun Mao and dated 1894 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1896_14_39, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1896 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1899_14_41, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1899 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1902_14_44, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1902 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1898_16_20, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1898 in the inscription
Guan Yao Nei Zao 1887_16_26, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated Ding Hai, 1887 in the inscription, painted by Xiang Shan/Yu Huan Wen (different names for the same person) at Zhu Shan, Xi Xuan. Yu Huanwen is a known Guangxu period artist
Guang Fu Chang Xuan_28_21, made by Guang Fu Chang company
Guang Xu Guan Yao_12_13, Guangxu Imperial Kiln
Guang Xu Ding Hai Nian Zhi 1887_22_57, a very uncommon type of mark where the date, Ding Hai 1887, is actually within the base mark
Guang Ya Ci She Chu Pin_23_01, this may be related to the Jiangxi Guang Ya company or Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935), possibly a later mark near to the time of its closure in 1935
Guangxu Nian Qingyun Zhi 1898_14_40, This is an unusual mix of a period mark (Guangxu) with an artist (Ma Qingyun), and dated 1898 in the inscription
Gui Bi_06_03, Base mark is shown – Artist’s name Gui Bi or seal?
Guo Hua Mei Shu Ci Dian_16_44, Not sure of the meaning of this mark, whether it has some quasi-government association, or just the name of a company/factory
Guo Huo Zhi Guang_26_38, meaning ‘the pride of national production’, this mark on the base of a tea bowl whose lid has a mark ‘Jiangxi Wang Long Tai Zao’
Guo Xie Cheng Tang_15_19, Not sure what the Tang means here. All these ‘Guo Xie Cheng’ marked pieces are dragon and phoenix pattern with a multi-coloured key fret.
Guo Xie Cheng Tang_15_20, See above
Guo Xie Cheng Zhi_3_22, Made by Guo Xie Cheng, artist or company
Han Qing 1933_14_62, Han Qing is the name mark for artist Yu Hanqing, dated 1933 in the inscription
Han Qing 1941_18_73, name mark of Yu Hanqing, dated to 1941 in the inscription, from S.Kwan’s Republic Porcelain book
Hankou Zhu Shan Chu Pin_16_39, Made In Hankou, but relationship to Zhushan (Pearl Hill – site of the Imperial kiln in Jingdezhen) is unknown at this stage. The calligrapher of this mark also wrote marks for Nanchang, Jiujiang and Jiangxi companies, many of which were decorated with dragon and phoenix pattern, as this one is. See similar example below
Hankou Zhu Shan Zhen Pin_1_28, Made In Hankou, but relationship to Zhushan (Pearl Hill – site of the Imperial kiln in Jingdezhen) is unknown at this stage. The calligrapher of this mark also wrote marks for Nanchang, Jiujiang and Jiangxi companies, many of which were decorated with dragon and phoenix pattern, as this one is.
He Cheng Chang_3_32, ‘He Chen Chang’ is a porcelain company’s name in Chao Zhou(潮州)City, Guangdong Province
He De Chang Zao_07_12, Made by He De Chang, company or artist
Heng Li Chu Pin_01_9, Product of Heng Li Company or artist, 2 examples (see below) both millefleur pattern.
Heng Li Chu Pin_01_10, Heng Li Company or artist
Heng Shen Ji Zhi_10_11, Also has a stamped ‘MADE IN CHINA’ mark, Heng Sheng Ji company or artist.
Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_10, Product of Heng Xin company or artist, all 3 examples (see below) are of the millefleur pattern. Or does Heng have a special meaning?
Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_11, This bowl was sold with another exactly the same, but the other had a stamped 6 character Qianlong kaishu mark in iron red.
Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_14, Product of Heng Xin company or artist
Hou Yu Chu_20_24, with an inscription indicating that this was made by Shi Yu Chu at Yangshan
Hu ? Weng Zao 1923_21_01, the inscription giving a Gui Hai 1923 dating
Hu Yan Xing Hui_12_30, Painted by Hu Yan Xing and the inscription says ‘Jiangxi Yan Xing Chu Pin’ and also ‘Ren Jia Yi Bi Liu’
Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1927_14_09, This was discussed on the Gotheborg site, artist is Hu Hai Qing (from the inscriptions), company name is Hu Yuan Xin, and dated 1927 in the inscription See below for another interpretation
Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1921_14_27, Made by Hu Yuan Xin in the year of Xin You (1921)
Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_01, Made by Hu Yuan Xin, a known early C20th artist according to the Canon of Ceramic Painting book, with the inscription indicating that the company name is Yi Cheng Xuan and that the decoration is in imitation of Liu Ru’s works. So this information is in contradiction of the example above
Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_28, The inscription on this example shows that the artist’s name is Hu Hai Qing, a known Guangxu period artist. The 1927 dating from the two examples above shows that this artist was active for many years
Hu Yuan Xing Zao_15_16, Made by Hu Yuan Xing. Only the lid of this teabowl set has this mark. The mark on the bowl is a stamped red 4 character Tongzhi seal mark. This is not the same maker as Hu Yuan Xin, above
Hua Cha Gong Si Chu Pin_14_17, The Hua Cha and Ji Hua Cha company made tea caddies. Many tea caddies of the Republic period have one of these marks and often also have a red ‘CHINA’ mark. Others are either unmarked or have just the ‘CHINA’ mark. ”Hua” means China, ”Cha” means tea, ”Hua Cha” here is a name of a tea producing company in Shang Hai, but the porcelain is produced for it by a Jingdezhen porcelain company
Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_01_22, See above
Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_01_8, See Hua Cha company above for info
Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_1_20, See Hua Cha company above for info
Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_16_34, See Hua Cha company above for info
Hua Chang Ci Ye Shang Dian_08_01, No info, presumably a company name. Some other examples with this pattern have a Shanghai mark, so the pattern, which is new to the Republic in this form, may have originated here.
Hua Cui Ciye Gongsi_27_54, Hua Cui Company with the inscription indicating that this is a Shanghai company.
Hua Ji Chu Pin_10_20, The inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Hua Ji Chu Pin’ so presumably Hua Ji company or artist of Jiangxi
Hua Tai Ciye Gongsi_26_27, Hua Tai Company
Hua Zhen Hua Shi_16_03, Hua Zhen company? and from the inscription the artist is Luo Zhonglin, a known Republic period artist
Hua Zhen Chu Pin_15_01, Product of Hua Zhen company or artist
Huang Ji ? Mao Xiang ? 1920_14_22, No info on the mark, but the inscription says that Qing Chang was the artist and Zhu Shan, Rong Ci was
the place this was made, and dated 1920
Huang Jin Gu Xuan_11_01, The inscription reads ‘Jiangxi ? Gu Xuan Chu Pin’ so the company or artist name of ? Gu Xuan? Or Huang Jin Gu?
Huang Xin Xing Hao_16_14, Painted by Huang Xin Xing, with the inscription reading ‘Imitation of works from Yuan Dynasty’
Hui Tong Zhen Pin_19_26, precious product of Hui Tong
Hui Xie Hua Xuan_16_24, Painted by Xie Hua Huan?
Hunan Mofan Yaoye Gongchang_5_02, This mark from Simon Kwan’s book, dated 1921. Hunan Province factory name, innovative use of enamels directly on the biscuit.
Ji Chang Jian Zhi_28_22, made by Ji Chang Company
Ji De Tang Zhi_06_22, This hallmark not in Davison’s book so possibly a new Republic hallmark, ’Hall of Primary Virtue’. This example is early C20th
Ji Xiang Ru Yi_09_22, ‘May your Good Fortune be as you wish’ – a Tongzhi commendation. This shape and pattern typically is Guangxu or Tongzhi mark & period.
Ji Xiang Ru Yi_29_05, a similar object to that above
Ji Zhen_06_08, Ji Zhen is a seal mark, this piece was discussed on the list, and translation of the inscription shows that decoration is ‘freehand painting by Wu Ji Zhen’
Jian Guo Gongsi 1951_18_38, Signed in the inscription by Tian Hexian, base mark refers to the ‘Jiangxi Jian Guo Gongsi’ or Jiangxi Jianguo Ceramics Company. Dated to 1951 in the inscription, from Innovations and Creations book
X Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_05_16, Thought at first this might be Jian Hua, but not …. the inscription may give more clues?
Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_14, Jian Hua Porcelain Company. This company was started in 1919 and was still in operation in 1930, in Shanghai
Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_15, Jian Hua Porcelain Company, see above.Note that this is a stamped mark on a piece of equivalent quality to the handwritten mark pieces
Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_16, Jian Hua Porcelain Company, see above
Jian Hua Ciye Gongsi_06_11, Jian Hua Porcelain Company, see above Inscription untranslated
Jian Hua Gongsi Chu Pin_25_48, Product of Jian Hua Company
Jian Yi Yuan Hao Chu Pin_01_18, Painted by Jian Yi Yuan
Jiang Fu Chang Hao_20_15, painted by Fu Chang
Jiang Li He Zao_21_37, made by Li He
Jiang Ming Ci Chu Pin_15_32, Unusual 5 character mark (unless the stamp was broken off with the ‘Xi’ character!)
Jiangxi ?? Xing Chu Pin_01_14, Untranslated, but probably a company name
Jiangxi ? Ci Gong Ren Sheng Chan Wu Chang Chu Pin_1, Product of ? Ci Gong Ren Sheng Chan Wu Chang
Jiangxi ? De Ji Chu Pin_1, Product of ? De Ji
Jiangxi Bing Xing Chu Pin_27_55
Jiangxi Cao Hua Ji Chu Pin_24_69
Jiangxi Chen Hua Zhen Chu Pin_26_75, made by Hua Zhen in the inscription
Jiangxi Chen Kuan(?) Ji Chu Pin_1, Product of Chen Kuan (?) Ji
Jiangxi Chen Sheng Fa Chu Pin_19_24
Jiangxi Chen Yu Xing Chu Pin_1, Product of Chen Yu Xing
Jiangxi Cheng Xing Fa Chu Pin_24_58
Jiangxi Cheng Yu Ji Chu Pin_1, Product of Cheng Yu Ji
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_40, Generic mark for a large range of utilitarian and more refined porcelains made in Jiangxi province. ‘Chu Pin’ means sincere production
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_41, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_42, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_43, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_44, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_45, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_46, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_4_31, Generic mark, see above The inscription indicates that this item was made by Huang Jun Shun. There is a known Guangxu period artist called Huang Jushun, but this example is almost certainly Republic in age
Jiangxi Chu Pin_5_42, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_12_19, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Chu Pin_18_04, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ci Chang Gongsi 1922_15_58, Company name with the inscription giving the artist’s name as De Ming and dated to the Ren Xu year, 1922
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1923_14_06, This is the mark for the Jiangxi Porcelain Company, a well-known company which took over much of the production which previously had been undertaken by the Imperial kilns. It was started in 1910 and continued production until at least the 1940s. Generally the quality of pieces with this mark is above average. I have taken out some of the marks which may be copies or fakes, but cannot guarantee that all the marks below are genuine, but I have tried!
This particular mark is an example of an overglaze blue Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi mark. Most of the overglaze blue marks of this company which I have seen are of this slightly dirty grey blue colour, very different in hue from the standard overglaze royal blue one sees on other Republic-aged pieces. Untranslated inscription on this piece.
From the examples below it is obvious that only 2 or 3 calligraphers were writing the mark in the first 20 or 30 years at least. Both the underglaze blue and overglaze red marks show a similarity in style with a slight skew to the characters which reminds me of ‘left-hand’ writers of ‘English’ script. Some of the most special examples have the marks within a double underglaze blue circle (and the marks are underglaze blue also).
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_1 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_2 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_3 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_4 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_5 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_6 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_7 Jiangxi Porcelain Company, note the grey-blue enamelled mark
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_8 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This lidded serving dish is dated in the inscription to the 36th year of the Chinese Republic (1912+35), meaning 1947. This writer of this more cursive mark I am rating therefore as a later calligrapher.
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_9 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This is a rare stamped mark from this company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_10 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_11 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_12 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_14 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_15 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_16 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_17 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_18 Jiangxi Porcelain Company, note the grey-blue enamelled mark
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_19 Jiangxi Porcelain Company, note the grey-blue enamelled mark
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_20 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This version of the mark may be a copy. It is very stiff and contained. However, I have seen other examples which are similar.
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_21 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This example also has a double blue circle.
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_22 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_23 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_24 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_25 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_27 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_28 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This is another rarer stamped mark from this company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_29 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. A stamped mark on a fairly ordinary utilitarian piece.
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_30 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_31 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_32 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_33 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_34 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_35 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_38 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_39 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_12 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_13 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. Another stamped mark, but on a delightful bird and flower decorated pot, signed Xiao Yu.
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_14 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_15 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_16 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. Another stamped mark, but on a grasshopper and flower decorated bowl, dated 1941, signed Ni Longguang.
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_23 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_24 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_25 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_26 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_12_25 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This and the following bowl are dated by Bonhams to the 2nd quarter of the C20th, good provenance
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_12_26 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_17 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_18 Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1918_15_36, Jiangxi Porcelain Company, with an inscription dating the teapot to the Spring of Min Guo Year 7, 1918
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_42, Jiangxi Porcelain Company. These inscriptions have not yet been translated, anyone? The first starts with Jiangxi Porcelain Company, but I can’t read the last three characters. The rest?
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_50, Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_16_40, Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_34, Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_88, Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_89, Jiangxi Porcelain Company
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Chu Pin_1, Product of the Jiangxi Porcelain Company, stamped circle mark from the 1940s
Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Jing Zhen_26_07, another Late Republic/early PRC example from the Jiangxi Porcelain Company in its dying days
Jiangxi Da Feng Chu Pin_09_01, Da Feng is company or artist’s name. Untranslated inscription.
Jiangxi Dong Fang Ci She_15_10, Inscription reads Jiangxi He Ji Chu Pin. Not sure which is the artist which is the company or association – Dong Fang or He Ji?
Jiangxi Ding Yi Xing Chu Pin_15_02, Product of Ding Yi Xing company, with the front inscription indicating the piece was made at Zhushan and painted by Yi Xing, who is a known Republic period artist
Jiangxi Du Xiao Lou Chu Pin_20_05
Jiangxi Duan Song Mao Zao_5_21, Duan Song Mao is a known Republic period artist
Jiangxi Fu Chang Chu Pin_23_07_2
Jiangxi Fu Ren Shu Shi Chu Pin_25_32
Jiangxi Gan Hua Gongsi_1_30, Gan Hua is the company’s name, note calligraphic style
Jiangxi Gong Chang Chu Pin_25_31
Jiangxi Guan Yao Ming Ci_09_24, This may be a variant of the Guan Yao Nei Zao (Made in the Imperial Kiln) mark, underglaze blue scrolling lotus pattern
Jiangxi Guang Hua Gongsi_14_20, Guang Hua is the company’s name
Jiangxi Guang Hua Gongsi_1_32, Guang Hua is the company’s name
Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_5_46, Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935)
Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_07_25, Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935)
Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_15_13, Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935). Note the grey-blue enamelled mark
Jiangxi Guo Hua Zhen Pin_5_22, Precious Object of Jiangxi National Splendour – Guangxu, might be a company name or an aspirational name
Jiangxi Guo Long Sheng Chu Pin_27_64
Jiangxi He Xing Gongsi_26_51, Hexing Company
Jiangxi He Xing Gongsi 1936_27_42, Hexing Company, dated in the inscription to the 24th year of the Republic, 1936
Jiangxi He Yi Chang Chu Pin_24_50
Jiangxi He Yi Ji Chu Pin_20_33
Jiangxi Hu Fu Ji Chu Pin_15_03, Product of Hu Fu Ji company or artist
Jiangxi Hu Fu Ji Chu Pin_20_37, as above
Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Chu Pin_13_06, Hu Hua Chang is the artist’s name, see next example
Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Zao_1_35, Hu Hua Chang is a Republic period artist
Jiangxi Hu Mao Ji_20_28
Jiangxi Hu Sen Yuan Chu Pin_1, Product of Hu Sen Yuan
Jiangxi Hu Xiang Tai Chu Pin_24_08
Jiangxi Hu Yuan Tai Zao_24_15
Jiangxi Hu Zheng Fa Chu Pin_21_08
Jiangxi Hua Cai Chu Pin_16_31, Product of the Hua Cai company in Zhushan, Jiangxi
Jiangxi Hua Chang Chu Pin_18_02, Product of the Hua Chang Company
Jiangxi Hua Zhen Chu Pin_16_25, Product of the Hua Zhen company, with the inscription showing that the artist was Luo Zhonglin. See Hua Zhen Hua Shi_16_03 for a similar company mark with Luo Zhonglin also as artist
Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_21_27, with an inscription “precious object made by Luo Zhonglin”.
Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_24_40
Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_26_12
Jiangxi Huang Jun ? Chu Pin_20_38
Jiangxi Huang Shun Fa Chu Pin_20_41
Jiangxi Ji Tai Chang Chu Pin_24_27
Jiangxi Jin Ji Zao Chu Pin_23_48
Jiangxi Jin Tang Ci She_1_34, Company name, Jin Tang means Golden Hall
Jiangxi Jing Hua Bi Pin_25_14
Jiangxi Jing Mei Gongsi_24_05, Jing Mei Company
Jiangxi Jing Mei Gongsi_24_10, Jing Mei Company
Jiangxi Jing Tao Gongsi_10_12, Jing Tao is probably the company name: the left part of inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Xin Chang Chu Pin’ indicating that the artist may be called Xin Chang
Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She 1950_06_19, Ming Xing may be the company name. Jing Zhen is a shortening of Jingdezhen. According to Christies, the inscription indicates a dating to 1950
Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She_21_21
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Di Qi Gong Ye Cun Chu Pin_24_03
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Di Yi Ci (Chang) Chu Pin_25_05
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_1_70, Generic name for one or more companies/factories in Jingdezhen. This mark appears to be a transitional or early one before wares similar to this one were stamped with factory circle marks during the 1950s and 1960s
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_13, Generic name for one or more companies/factories in Jingdezhen. This mark has no factory number and the pattern is completely hand painted
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_16, Generic name for one or more companies/factories in Jingdezhen. This mark has no factory number and the pattern is completely hand painted
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci Nanchang Yuejin Shang Fang ?_24_46
Jiangxi Jingdezhen Zao_1_36, see above
Jiangxi Jingdezhen ? Ming (1) Ci_23_40
Jiangxi Li Chen Yong Fa Zao_25_47
Jiangxi Li Fuchang Meishu Ci She_25_20, Li Fuchang Ceramic Painting Studio in Jiangxi
Jiangxi Li He Chu Pin_07_10, Huang Li He is a known Republic period artist, the inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Huang Li He Chu Pin’
Jiangxi Li Ji Gongsi_1_31, Ren(?) Li Ji or Li Ji is the company name, from the inscription ‘Jiangxi Ren(?) Li Ji Chu Pin’
Jiangxi Li Ji Gongsi 1920_15_12, Made by the Li Ji company, and from the inscription was made at Zhu Shan and possibly dated to the Geng Chen year, 1920
Jiangxi Li Sheng 1948_06_10, Li Sheng is the company or artist’s name, located in Jiujiang; the inscription on the other side of this teapot gives a 1948 date and indicates that it was an engagement present to a named couple
Jiangxi Li Sheng_16_50, Company/artist base mark and on the bottom of the inside of this bowl is the red mark shown: reading Yang San Fu Tang, apparently also a company name or commendation?
Jiangxi Ling Mei Cai Chu Pin 1953_20_06, with a Gui Si, 1953, dating in the inscription
Jiangxi Ling Mei Cai Chu Pin 1947_20_07, with a 1947 dating in the inscription
Jiangxi Liu He Ji Chu Pin_27_04
Jiangxi Liu Rong Sheng Chu Pin_01_2, Company or artist’s name. Liu Rong Sheng was a famous Ming dynasty artist according to research by my translator, but she may have meant Qing!
Jiangxi Liu Rong Sheng Chu Pin_24_25
Jiangxi Liu Sheng He Chu Pin_1, Product of Liu Sheng He
Jiangxi Lize Xuan Chu Pin 1954_23_76, an early PRC example from the reincarnation of this company (Lize Xuan, originally owned by Liang Duishi until his death in 1937, reopened after the war c. 1946 by Liang’s son)
Jiangxi Lize Xuan Zao_25_10
Jiangxi Mei Shu Ci Chang_09_02, Jiangxi Art Porcelain Company, from the inscription made by Nie Xing Sheng, dated circa 1945
Jiangxi Mi Long Fa Chu Pin_5_23, Company or Artist’s name of Mi Long Fa
Jiangxi Min Zheng Xing Chu Pin_1, Product of Min Zheng Xing, owner. This mark was used by Mr. Min Zheng Xing (name) in his porcelain shop in Nanchang, Jiangxi province. At this time the Wa Lee Factory was still in Nanchang. In 1947 the Wa Lee Factory moved to Canton “near the end of the Yi De Road” and in 1949 moved on to Hong Kong. Meanwhile Min Zheng Xing remained in Jiangxi. Around 1951 to 1952 Min Zheng Xing “who also was an accomplished porcelain painter” travelled to HK once, trying to sell his Nanchang factory porcelains. Mr. Kung “treated him and took him around, but with little success since the times were difficult in HK too”. (Source: Simon Ng interview w Mr Kung, HK 2001, from the Gotheborg.com Marks list)
Jiangxi Min Zheng Xing Chu Pin _2, Product of Min Zheng Xing, owner, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_47, Generic mark for a large range of utilitarian as well as more refined porcelains made in Jiangxi province. ‘Ming Ci’ means reputable porcelain
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_48, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_49, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_50, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_51, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_52, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_53, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_55, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_56, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_57, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_58, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_59, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_60, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_61, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_62, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_63, see above This example also has a company name – Jiangxi Yong ? Chu Pin
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_68, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_69, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_71, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci _10_19, See bove, The inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Lian Xi Zuo’, so made by Lian Xi? Lian Xi is the maker on the example ‘Lian Xi Tao Hui_08_03’ further down this list
Jiangxi Ming Ci _11_18, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci _14_19, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci _18_05, Generic mark, see above
Jiangxi Ming Ci _14_24, See above, A different form of the Jiangxi Ming Ci mark. Inscription reads Zhong Guo (China) ? Chu Pin
Jiangxi Ming Ci_2, See above. A different form of the Jiangxi
Ming Ci mark
Jiangxi Ming Ci Jiu Feng Jian Zhi_20_39
Jiangxi Ming Ci Yu De Chang Chu Pin_1, Reputable product of Yu De Chang
Jiangxi Niu Fu Shun Zao_19_09
Jiangxi Rao Hua Feng Zao_09_13, Company or artist’s name of Rao Hua Feng, although there is a similarly named company with a similar calligrapher, see Jing Zhen Hua Feng Gongsi_03_01
Jiangxi Rong Ji Chu Pin_6_01, Inscription seems to read Jiangxi ? Rong Ji Chu Pin, Artist’s or company name
Jiangxi San Yi He Chu Pin_20_13
Jiangxi She Xing Hua Chu Pin_5_20,