The Puce Landscape Pattern on Porcelain – Chinese Republic Era Stereotype

The following is a pictorial report for your pleasure I hope. It is worth studying the 100 or so compiled images in some detail as I believe that this group of porcelains give a succinct understanding of the nature of Republic porcelains in general, that is, variety and individualism in all forms of the pieces: marks, shapes, painting, inscriptions, and colours, all within a coherent and identifiable pattern (If the compiled images to not show, try changing your browser to Chrome or Firefox).

Origins:

A puce landscape per se is not new to the Late Qing and Republic period. Puce landscapes were painted on early eighteenth century ceramics both in China and in Europe. It is actually not clear whether China or Germany/France/Italy produced these landscapes first (the first Chinese puce landscape known is on a Yongzheng period bowl in the Eugene Fuller Collection at the Seattle Art Museum). Certainly it is now considered that these pink and other new-coloured enamels arose concurrently in the 1720s and 1730s in Jingdezhen under the Emperors Yongzheng and Qianlong and also at least in Germany under the patronage of Alexander ‘The Strong’. The ‘Fetes Galantes’ idealised landscapes and Chinoiseries of Frenchmen Watteau and Boucher in the late C17th and early C18th influenced puce landscapes in Europe throughout the rest of the C18th, but the landscapes on Imperial Chinese porcelains of similar vintage are most definitely Chinese in appearance and taste, as shown below.

Seattle Puce Yongzheng bowl

Yongzheng period bowl from the Eugene Fuller Collection in the Seattle Art Museum. Considered to be the first Chinese puce landscape known. Each ogee cartouche on the millefleur ground holds a puce landscape with a different five character poem of the four seasons (from ‘Asiatic Art in the Seattle Art Museum’, 1973, produced by Kodansha)

Bernat bowl

The ‘Bernat’ bowl, Qianlong, sold at Sotheby’s Hong Kong, November 15, 1988 and, below, a close-up of a similar Qianlong bowl from the collection of T. Endo, sold by Sotheby’s Hong Kong, in April, 1997.

Endo bowl

Even the Chinese export wares of Qianlong age show Chinese taste landscapes:

Export bowl

European puce land scapes of equivalent age reflect to a much greater degree the engraved landscapes so popular in France at the beginning of the C18th, see below.

Doccia Bowl

Beaker from the Doccia company, Italy, 1737

Meissen bowl

A Meissen vase, Germany, porcelain 1730, decoration later, after Watteau.

Some other and later Qing forebears of the pattern:

Export combo 2

Export combo 1

So these earlier Qing puce coloured landscapes tend to be contained within a small cartouche, the Imperial pieces being extremely finely painted and to a set design and the export pieces less fine on all levels.  After the Qianlong period it is uncommon to find puce landscapes on non-export Chinese porcelain again until the Guangxu period. This Late Qing and the subsequent Republic version is much more singular, more relaxed, a pure single colour landscape on a white ground, and when within a cartouche, that cartouche is still the main part of the overall pattern.

 Description:

On a white ground, or within a white cartouche in a coloured or millefleur ground, a variety of landscapes were painted in a puce coloured enamel. More rarely an orange, green or blue enamel was used instead of puce for the landscape, but the unique aspect of this pattern is that the landscape is a monochrome and that it is over the glaze. The actual landscapes vary quite a bit, but the main elements of mountain, river, hut or pavillion, boat, and trees are usually all present (see final quote for explanation of the landscape). Sometimes a person or a more substantial dwelling is depicted but they usually remain insignificant to the grandeur of the scene. Gold rims are a feature and most items have an inscription in black or, more rarely, puce enamel. Pieces with the landscapes in cartouche are usually without an inscription.

The puce landscape pattern from the Republic or late Guangxu period is very commonly available in China today, much more so than in the West. It was obviously not exported in the same quantities as many other patterns which are common in the West and rarer in China (for example some of the Wan Shou Wu Jiang wares, millefleur wares and export dragon on turquoise ground wares).

The main items carrying this pattern are teabowls and kamcheng pots or tureens, perhaps indicating it was associated with tea (kamcheng pots were used principally to store boiled water as far as I can ascertain, although soup was also served from them; however, they ‘google’ translate as ‘porridge pots’ so perhaps they were used for congee and other breakfast foods).

Below are compiled images showing the complete range of Republic period puce landscape examples. I started with pieces from western sources over a decade ago but since searching the Chinese websites, the whole pantheon of this pattern has rapidly become apparent, and having now had many of the inscriptions translated I feel that a fairly complete overview is possible – many thanks to Mojia Li, Sydney, for these translations.

Shapes or Forms:

Tea bowls, bowls, spoons, plates, condiment sets, sauce dishes, small lidded serving bowls, tureens, nesting bowls (set of 10), brush washers, jardinieres, teapots, teacup & saucer, tea caddies, tea trays, tea sets, hat stands, vases, lidded pots and jars, narcissus trays, horseshoe cups.

Marks and statistics:

About 80% of standard puce landscape pieces have inscriptions and about 33% have no marks, the rest having private company marks. Of the 33% with no marks, 75% had inscriptions instead, many of these giving the maker’s name and/or place. So the overwhelming majority of these pieces were made in workshops, studios and companies located in several cities in Jiangxi province (e.g. Jingdezhen, Jiujiang, Nanchang) and in Shanghai. Several examples don’t have a base mark because of the inherent nature of the item, such as a tea tray or 9-piece condiment set, both of which have unglazed bases.

Development of the pattern to present day:

The pattern was not made on any large scale after 1949, but examples of later attempts at this pattern exist (there is at least one example below). During the Republic period the pattern shows no particular development or denigration through time, such as the use of stamped elements, poorer painting, addition of borders, changes in subject matter etc. The pattern is quite pure in this respect, is always hand painted and any variations reflect the individuality of the painter/workshop rather than any other element.

The Images:

I have decided to divide up the images in several ways to convey the basics of this pattern. The pictures really will tell the story…..

Tea Bowls: The twenty-nine tea bowls below encapsulate the variety and individualism of Republic period ceramics:

  • all are puce landscapes (except the green enamel example) with a variety of painting styles and a unique combination of landscape and figural elements. Note the differing brush styles for the landscape elements
  • the enamel colour, all emulating prior examples, are of varied hues, even allowing for different photographic lighting conditions and camera settings
  • almost all are painted by a different hand
  • there is a multitude of different base marks, usually a private company or shop mark
  • there is a recurring range of inscription phrases: these encompass praise for the interaction of the landscape and weather elements, purely descriptive four character refrains, expressions of conviviality when eating and drinking, and dedications on special occasions such as birthdays, as well as information about the painter, the location and even the calligrapher
  • and each shows subtle differences in tea bowl shape

In essence, therefore, I feel that one must give much more leeway in identifying Republic period porcelains than for earlier periods – there is no ‘set’ way of standardising the usual parameters – of enamels, of subject, of calligraphy, of base marks and of shape or form. It is only when one has a multitude of examples that these kinds of comparison are possible.

Although many examples are from Chinese sources which I am not so familiar with, they are all considered authentic. The relative ubiquity of this pattern in China and its consequent effect on value help to substantiate this statement.

001_Puce Landscapes 04_3

002_Puce Landscapes 12_2

003_Puce Landscapes 01_4

004_Puce Landscapes 05_1

005_Puce Landscapes 05_2

006_Puce Landscapes 05_3

007_Puce Landscapes 07_5

008_Puce Landscapes 08_1

009_Puce Landscapes 09_2

010_Puce Landscapes 10_4

011_Puce Landscapes 11_2

012_Puce Landscapes 11_3

013_Puce Landscapes 13_2

014_Puce Landscapes 13_5

015_Puce Landscapes 14_2

016_Puce Landscapes 14_3

017_Puce Landscapes 15_1

018_Puce Landscapes 15_2

019_Puce Landscapes 15_3

020_Puce Landscapes 15_4

021_Puce Landscapes 16_5

022_Puce Landscapes 15_6

023_Puce Landscapes 15_5

024_Puce Landscapes 16_1

025_Puce Landscapes 16_3

026_Puce Landscapes 16_4

027_Puce Landscapes 16_6

028_Puce Landscapes 17_2

029_Puce Landscapes 17_3

Green ground puce landscapes in an ogee cartouche:

This is a subset of the puce landscape group, again from a variety of makers, shapes, landscape combinations and usually without inscriptions, often without base marks as well.

030_Puce Landscapes 03_2

031_Puce Landscapes 18_1

032_Puce Landscapes 19_1

033_Puce Landscapes 19_2

034_Puce Landscapes 19_3

035_Puce Landscapes 19_4

036_Puce Landscapes 19_5

037_Puce Landscapes 20_1

038_Puce Landscapes 21_1

Other coloured ground with puce landscapes in cartouche:

Yet another subset, where the ground colours are different, but the ogee cartouche holds a puce landscape. The ground colours are mid-blue, yellow, pale coral red and, most common, all shiny gold. A rarer form is a millefleur ground with puce landscape in a circular cartouche and the two examples I have seen both have a Jurentang mark. Another rarer form is a burgundy coloured ground with a blue coloured landscape in cartouche, an example in the next section on blue landscapes.

039_Puce Landscapes 02_3

040_Puce Landscapes 18_4

041_Puce Landscapes 08_3

042_Puce Landscapes 01_3

043_Puce Landscapes 10_3

044_Puce Landscapes 07_2

046_Puce Landscapes 11_1

047_Puce Landscapes 26_millefleur 1

Landscapes in other colours:

Landscapes painted in another enamel colour form yet another subset of this pattern, most being blue enamel, with one example having a green enamel scene, another in orange, and another in grisaille.

048_Puce Landscapes 18_3

049_Puce Landscapes 18_5a

050_Puce Landscapes 06_1

051_Puce Landscapes 17_5a

052_Puce Landscapes 17_1a

053_Jiujiang Yuan Dong Chu Pin_3

028_Puce Landscapes 17_2

055_Puce Landscapes 04_5

056_Puce Landscapes 11_6

057_Puce Landscapes 20_4

A variety of porcelain shapes and forms in puce landscapes:

Below I have divided the images into shapes to show further the incredible range of pieces and painting styles with this pattern.

Tea Trays:

058_Puce Landscapes 09_1

059_Puce Landscapes 23_3

060_Puce Landscapes 24_3

Teapots:

061_Puce Landscapes 07_6

062_Puce Landscapes 12_4

063_Puce Landscapes 22_5

Pots and Jars:

064_Puce Landscapes 21_2a

065_Puce Landscapes 22_4

066_Puce Landscapes 14_4

067_Puce Landscapes 07_4

068_Puce Landscapes 06_6

069_Puce Landscapes 24_6

Condiments Sets:

070_Puce Landscapes 09_3

071_Puce Landscapes 11_5

072_Puce Landscapes 13_1

Hat stands/Cylindrical Vases:

073_Puce Landscapes 08_5

074_Puce Landscapes 21_3

075_Puce Landscapes 24_5a

Narcissus trays:

076_Puce Landscapes 10_5

077_Puce Landscapes 12_3

078_Puce Landscapes 25_1

Plates:

079_Puce Landscapes 09_4A PRC example

082_Puce Landscapes 22_3

081_Puce Landscapes 12_6

080_Puce Landscapes 10_2

Lidded Serving Bowls:

083_Puce Landscapes 04_4

084_Puce Landscapes 06_5

085_Puce Landscapes 17_4

Lidded Tureens:

086_Puce Landscapes 25_2

088_Puce Landscapes 23_1

089_Puce Landscapes 14_5

087_Puce Landscapes 23_5

090_Puce Landscapes 14_1

091_Puce Landscapes 13_4

Vases:

092_Puce Landscapes 21_4a

Wine Pots:

093_Puce Landscapes 13_3

Bowls of all shapes and sizes:

094_Puce Landscapes 01_2

095_Puce Landscapes 03_1

096_Puce Landscapes 04_2

098_Puce Landscapes 08_2

097_Puce Landscapes 04_6

099_Puce Landscapes 08_4

100_Puce Landscapes 09_5

101_Puce Landscapes 12_1

102_Puce Landscapes 24_2

103_Puce Landscapes 25_3

I hope that after looking at the range of examples above it is apparent how fascinatingly varied these Republic period porcelains can be. They are overwhelmingly utilitarian in shape and use but display a wonderful range of hand painting within a theme, and express quintessentially Chinese sayings about the landscape and even conviviality whilst eating and drinking. I believe that the popularity of this pattern is most likely a result of the influence of the Qianjiang and Literati movements at this period in China, where landscapes were again revered for their own sake and where the painters had free rein to express their delight in them, even for these more modest examples….

According to one Chinese seller: “the puce-red looks not only luxurious but also the most brilliant one among all those red colours…….belongs to imperial kilns at the end of Qing Dynasty and beginning of Republic of China…. the production usually has theme of West Lake scenery, Tengwang Pavilion, Yellow Crane Tower, Smoky Water Pavillion and other landscapes, and has the characteristic of oriental romantic charm and national features. Therefore, many famous museums in foreign countries all have the collection of this type of ceramics.”

Please feel free to correct/modify/add to the translations. Best wishes from Michaela.

Bibliography: Asiatic Art in the Seattle Art Museum  A Selection and Catalogue 1973 Library of Congress No. 73-88583, Seattle Art Museum, by H. Trubner, W.J. Rathbun & C.A. Kaputa

 

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Chinese Lions in the 19th and 20th centuries

Twenty examples of Chinese Lions/Foo Dogs on porcelain are shown below. They are all examples from the 19th century (since the Jiaqing) and the first half of the 20th century. This is a follow-on from a discussion on the Gotheborg forum but where I was unable to upload the images with my flukey internet service. The images are in no particular order.

So, we are concentrating on the Chinese Lions/Foo dogs themselves and how they may have changed throughout this 150 year period. As I began to focus on the individual lions for this exercise, I had the best time! Some of the lion’s faces are straight out of ‘The Simpsons’! So GR’s idea of them as cartoons is spot on. But this is truly how they are, and they are madder and crazier than dragons, I’ve decided. Take a look…. (excuse the quality of some of the images).

LionsComp_1aLionsComp_1b LionsComp_1m  C19th wine cup

LionsComp_2a LionsComp_2b LionsComp_2mTea Cup, 4 character stamped iron red Qianlong seal mark with a double border, late C19th/early C20th

LionsComp_3a Straight sided turquoise ground bowl, iron red Guangxu mark, probably of the period, but these are dogs, not lions???

LionsComp_4b LionsComp_4aLionsComp_4m Straight sided turquoise ground bowl, Jiaqing seal mark and ‘CHINA’ mark, either of period or Guangxu (can’t tell from pictures, but probably Guangxu)

LionsComp_5a LionsComp_5b LionsComp_5m Turquoise ground bowl
with Jiaqing seal mark, possibly of the period, again dogs, not lions?

LionsComp_6a LionsComp_6b LionsComp_6m Six-sided lidded jar, Jiaqing seal mark, possibly of the period or early C20th

LionsComp_7a LionsComp_7b LionsComp_7m Footed dish, handwritten Tongzhi seal mark, probably of the period – these guys are quite cartoon-like already

LionsComp_8a LionsComp_8b LionsComp_8m Small yellow ground teapot with multi-coloured keyfret , stamped Qianlong kaishu mark, red, Republic

LionsComp_9a LionsComp_9b LionsComp_9m Turquoise ground plate, Jiaqing seal mark but late C19th/earlyC20th, these are dogs again

LionsComp_10a LionsComp_10b LionsComp_10m Turquoise ground plate with multi-coloured key fret, stamped Qianlong kaishu mark, red, Republic

LionsComp_11a LionsComp_11b LionsComp_11m Small plate, handwritten Tongzhi seal mark, probably of the period. These guys are straight from‘The Simpsons’ with those noses!

LionsComp_12a LionsComp_12b LionsComp_12m Yellow ground tea bowl, stamped Guangxu kaishu mark, Republic

LionsComp_13a LionsComp_13b LionsComp_13m Bowl with handwritten Qianlong kaishu mark, Republic

LionsComp_14a LionsComp_14b LionsComp_14m Footed dish, handwritten Tongzhi seal mark and probably of the period.

LionsComp_15a LionsComp_15b LionsComp_15m Yellow ground bowl with everted rim, 4 character handwritten Jiajing seal mark, but earlyC20th

LionsComp_16a LionsComp_16b LionsComp_16m Yellow ground sauce dish with multi-coloured key fret, stamped Guangxu kaishu mark and ‘CHINA’, Republic

LionsComp_17a LionsComp_17b LionsComp_17m Plate with 4 character stamped iron red Qianlong seal mark with a double border, late C19th/early C20th

LionsComp_18a LionsComp_18b LionsComp_18m Bowl with multi-coloured key fret and a querkily handwritten Guangxu kaishu mark, probably Republic but could be of the period

LionsComp_19a LionsComp_19b LionsComp_19m Six sided footed dish with yellow ground, handwritten Tongzhi seal mark, probably of the period

LionsComp_20a LionsComp_20b LionsComp_20m Large lidded turquoise ground tureen, with stamped circle mark ‘Jiangxi Zhang Rong Ji Chu Pin’, late Republic

So, these animals appear on turquoise Jiaqing (and later, Guangxu, copies), on Tongzhi plates and footed dishes and on a range of utilitarian wares of variable quality from the Republic. Most of the Republic period examples have a multi-coloured key fret. The quality of painting is quite variable across the whole time period with cartoon-like renderings present in Jiaqing, Tongzhi, Guangxu marked pieces as well the Republic period pieces. The earlier lions seem to be rounder and more detailed but not universally. Some have flowing ‘manes’ and tails, others are very curly, not age related. All have ribboned flower balls, except the examples with actual dogs (which we should leave out in future IMO), and some lions have the flower balls in their mouths. In essence there is no real pattern through time, they are reasonably individualistic, and some are like cartoons. It is, however, reasonably easy to date them with a combination of shape, ground colour, marks and presence of multi-coloured key fret.

Best wishes, Michaela

Dayazhai (大雅齋) Porcelains: A Brief Outline

GugongMuseum_p162a (1) Dayazhai plate in the Gugong Museum showing the ‘Autumn’ pattern, from the GUANYANG YUCI (Gugong Museum Book)

Dayazhai (大雅齋) Porcelains: A Brief Outline

This pattern and its derivatives have been well outlined by the collector and scholar Dr R. Longsdorf in a series of articles in the ‘Orientations’ magazine and in the book ‘The Great Fortune’ (See Bibliography). In 2007 a book was produced in China showing invaluable documents from the Gugong Museum (at the Imperial Palace), in Beijing, China. The museum retains the original illustrations which were drawn, annotated, and used as the templates for many Imperial porcelains of the Late Qing era, and had never been published before. These exquisite ‘cartoons’ are reproduced in the book, along with examples, where possible, of the actual porcelains made from these templates, also held in the Imperial Palace Museum. This is an authoritative resource indeed! Unfortunately I cannot read Chinese and it may take some months/years to translate the associated text, but others have been able to give some general ideas about its contents. The Gugong Museum book apparently states that these Dayazhai marked wares were made in the early 1870’s for the restoration of Yuan Ming Yuan Summer Palace and overseen by the Tongzhi Emperor. When the restoration project did not go ahead due to soaring costs in a difficult social and political climate, the porcelains were, in the main, stockpiled in Beijing, in the Forbidden City. (THIS NEEDS TO BE further UPDATED WITH INFORMATION FROM THE GUGONG MUSEUM BOOK, once translated). Although most of the examples in the Gugong Museum are in expectedly pristine condition there are some which have been used extensively and show this by rubbed enamel surfaces…..

Anyway, according to Longsdorf, the Dayazhai pattern consists of 5 different designs, apparently 2 for Spring and one each for the other seasons of Summer, Autumn and Winter. Each piece has a set of iron red kaishu marks which immediately make it ‘Dayazhai’: Under the rim, Chinese characters ‘Da’ ‘Ya’ ‘Zhai’, meaning ‘Abode of Great Refinement’; adjacent to these characters an oval panel with the characters ‘tian di yi jia chun’, meaning ‘Heaven and earth are united in Spring’ and the panel encircled with two tiny dragons; the base mark ‘yong qing chang chun’, meaning ‘Eternal prosperity and enduring Spring’, this last probably referring to an Imperial Hall of the same name where Cixi resided for a time in the Forbidden City.

GugongMuseum_p158b (2)  Daya_dayazhai mark2

Left: ‘Yong Qng Chang Chun’ base mark; Right: ‘Da Ya Zhai’ mark plus the oval panel bearing 2 opposing dragons encircling the characters tian di yi jia chun’, also from the GUANYANG YUCI (Gugong Museum Book)

The Gugong (Palace) Museum book (2007) shows these 5 designs, plus a considerable number of other beautiful floral and bird patterns, all with a Dayazhai mark, so there will no doubt have to be amendments to the Dayazhai pantheon. However, I think it still stands that there were only five main patterns, as outlined below, which were used on a full range of shapes. The extra patterns appear only on jardinieres, pots and bulb trays.

Almost 5000 Dayazhai pieces were actually made, this is contrary to earlier predictions of there being very few pieces made. However, I have yet to determine how many are still within the Gugong Museum and Imperial Palace collections (some sources say more than 200 pieces) and what proportion are of the five patterns versus the narcissus trays, jardinières and large fish pots. Certainly very few remain outside the Imperial Palace today – they reside in Museums in Taiwan and around the world and in a very few private collections – I have just read from Gugong Museum sources that many examples were distributed to provincial and other museums within China. Apparently in the Gugong Museum book the actual numbers of each pattern ordered appears in a list next to the paper cartoon – but I have not had these translated yet!

In the following list I have summed up all known examples as given by Longsdorf and added up all the pieces shown in Gugong Museum book – any other examples will be held in the Gugong Museum/Imperial Palace. So they are still very rare objects – all other porcelain items with this design are therefore derivatives and/or copies.

The five patterns are outlined below: the images to show these patterns are from the Gugong Museum book and I have used the Zhadou shape because it is the only one which has an example from all the five patterns. The beautifully rendered paintings used as templates for the porcelains are adjacent:

1. Turquoise ground, overglaze famille rose pattern of roses and wisteria, with a    Hwamie bird amongst the branches – SPRING – three pieces known in private collections, one in the Musee Guimet in Paris, two in the National Gallery of Victoria, Australia, one in the National Palace Museum, Taipei  and at least seven in the Gugong Museum.

GugongMuseum_p209c (1) GugongMuseum_p206

2.  Yellow ground, with opaque white peonies in full flower and bud, and insects (moths) and  leaves in grisaille – SPRING – three pieces known in  museums/collections in the west plus at least six in the Gugong Museum.

GugongMuseum_p157b (1) GugongMuseum_p156

3. White ground, natural lotus flower and leaves, with herons – SUMMER – three      pieces known in the British Museum, at least six in the Gugong Museum.

GugongMuseum_p190b (1) GugongMuseum_p188

4. Turquoise ground, with opaque white chrysanthemum and hibiscus flowers, leaves and foliage in grisaille, one flying blackish bird – AUTUMN – one example known in a private collection in the west, at least 8 pieces in the Gugong Museum.

GugongMuseum_p162b (1) GugongMuseum_p160

5. Purple ground, with purple, pink and yellow poppies and buds and possibly peach flowers (or single multiflora tiny rose or even a single spiraea) and grey-green foliage in polychrome enamels, and a black & white bird in flight – WINTER  –  three pieces known in private collections, one piece in the National Palace Museum in Taipei and at least seven pieces in the Gugong Museum.

GugongMuseum_p203a (1) GugongMuseum_p200

Eight shapes or forms were originally made for each season, bowls, dishes, ‘zhadou’ (spittoons?), covered food boxes, and large fish bowls. Not all of these shapes are known to still exist.

It is apparent from the GugongMuseum archives that a large number of associated patterns were also used to decorate porcelains, mainly jardinieres but also large fish pots. In addition, narcissus or bulb trays were produced in some number and they are outlined further on within this section.

Additional new patterns used mainly on jardinieres and large fish pots had the following decorations (for images see Bibliography) :-

  • Turquoise ground, peach branches in blossom as well as in fruit, lingzhi fungus, narcissus bulbs in flower, key fret on large fish round pot
  • Purple ground, large perched parrot in blue or green and white, peach branches in blossom as well as fruit, rectangular shape, straight sides
  • Yellow ground, prunus branches in flower, pair of perched crested and long tailed birds all in grisaille, rectangular shape, straight sides
  • White ground, pink, mauve and yellow peonies in full flower, occasional bud and foliage, branches with multicoloured buds, flying and perched swallows in blue-green and white, rectangular shape, straight sides
  • Yellow ground, white magnolia branches in flower; very large pink blossom flower (a single rose, white centre, pink edges – Rosa Chinensis ?) on branches, buzzing bee-like insects, circular shape with everted rim, blue & white key fret
  • Same as above, but white ground, and all decoration in grisaille, same shape, blue & white key fret.
  • Purple or white ground, cerise single camellia branches and leaves, small yellow blossom branches, grey & black bird, yellow beak. Circular shape with everted rim, blue & white key fret

 Dayazhai Narcissus Trays …………………… as outlined by Longsdorf

  • Pale green or deep blue ground, camellia branches in flower (red only) and yellow blossom and branches and brown and white swallow-like bird. Five lobed shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • Deep blue ground, double cherry blossoms and buds on leafy branches with      butterflies. Fan shape, blue & white key fret.
  • White ground, blue bindweed (Morning Glory vine) – no mention of the autumn leafed branches which may appear on the non- photographed side of the tray. Oval shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • Yellow ground, lotus flowers and leaves and a dragonfly. Round shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • Yellow ground, small blue star like flowers, pink flowered plant and other flowers. Quatrefoil lobed shape, blue and white key fret border.
  • Yellow ground, purple wisteria flowers on branches. Double lobed shape, blue and white  key fret border.

Dayazhai Narcissus Trays …………………… as outlined by the Gugong Museum – with several of these patterns only the original ‘cartoon’ is reproduced in the book, suggesting that no actual porcelain examples exist.

  • Deep blue  ground, camellia branches in flower (red only) and yellow blossom and branches and brown and white swallow-like bird. Five lobed shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • Coral red  ground, blue bindweed (Ipomoea – Morning Glory), autumn leafed branches. Oval shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • White ground, double pink blossom (cherry?) branches with leaves and butterflies. Fan shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • Deep blue  ground, wisteria  branches and flower, grasses in grisaille, white herons, flying and wading. Lozenge shape, blue & white key fret border.
  • White ground (?  – no actual example in porcelain), yellow hibiscus, pink and purple  chrysanthemum, small blue daisies, 3 buzzing bees. Double axehead shape.
  • No discernible ground colour (as above, no porcelain example), large poppy flower and many buds, plus foliage and perhaps another chrysanthemum like flower, all in a sepia grisaille. Hexagonal shape.
  • Lime green or  mid blue ground, pink and pure white lotus flowers and leaves, a dragonfly in flight. Oval shape, blue & white key fret border.

Marks and statistics: I have described the marks above because, in this unique case, they are actually integral to the design. If all three sets of marks are not present then the piece cannot even begin to be Dayazhai.

Development of the pattern to present day: The Dayazhai pattern is therefore quite distinct and should incorporate all of the decorative elements outlined at the beginning if it is to qualify as a Dayazhai piece. As Longdorf discusses in “The Great Fortune” book many derivative patterns, copies and fakes were also made in private kilns during the later Qing and early 20th century and then again up to the present day. It would appear also that the dayazhai wares were reordered, and in these cases certain elements and marks were discarded, colours and colour combinations were modified, and a litany of new shapes appeared. By far the most copied were those with turquoise ground. From the late 20th century to today, a range of copies are being made of all the patterns and their derivatives.

So, how does one deal with the huge number of derivatives, copies and recent fakes? In the absence of other markers like inscriptions one can really only assess these on two main counts –

  • Quality of the painting and decoration regardless of its likeness to the original
  • Quality of the painting and decoration and likeness to the original, very precisely ordained patterns

Looking at all these derivatives one can start to group them according to the layout of the pattern, extra elements such as playing dragons, new border innovations, presence or absence of marks – it goes on and on. But that is really another story. The fact still remains that 99.99999999% of Dayazhai decorated pieces that we may see in the public arena are derivatives and copies, some are as beautiful and enigmatic as the originals, perhaps even more so……

Michaela

Bibliography:

  • Dayazhai Ware: Porcelain of the Empress Dowager  1992 By Ronald W. Longsdorf    Orientations March 1992 pp 45-56
  • The Great Fortune, Chinese & Japanese Porcelain of the 19th and 20th centuries & their forerunners, from the Weishaupt Collection    2002 ISBN 3-00-010306-6     Ed. George Weishaupt
  • Gugong Museum: GUANYANG YUCI: GUGONG BOWUYUAN CANG QINGDAI ZHI CI GUANYANG YU YUYAO CIQI. (Official Designs for Imperial Porcelains: Qing Dynasty Official Designs for the Manufacture of Porcelain and Imperial Ceramics in the Collection of the Gugong Museum). Beijing, 2007  ISBN 978-7-80047-638-9. The Forbidden City Publishing House, 335 pp.

CHINESE REPUBLIC (1912-1949) and other MARKS OVERVIEW

(An update to this marks overview for May 2014 is now complete. All new marks are in the proper alphabetical order but the text will be red and in italics for a short time so as to highlight the newly added marks. There are about 200 new marks.)

A few years ago I posted on the Gotheborg Discussion Board (Gotheborg.com) an overview of Republic of China marks. Since then I have acquired many more different marks, as well as more examples of known marks. The last overview showed examples of all types of marks from the Republic Period, including reign marks, ‘CHINA’ marks, private kiln marks, hall marks, commendation marks and ‘circle’ marks. This updated overview will concentrate on the private kiln and company marks, hall and commendation marks, and will also include artist’s marks and seals, where possible.

The main thing that separates Republic marks from the marks of all previous times is the enormous number of private kiln and company, maker’s or shop marks. When one looks at the most comprehensive English language lineup of Chinese marks, in ‘The New and Revised Handbook of Marks on Chinese Ceramics’ by Gerald Davison, 2010, almost 3400 different marks are listed. Some are different combinations of reign marks but there are still over 3000 marks to cover the marks of all the Chinese Dynasties from the Shang 1600BCE to the Guangxu reign ending in 1908. A relatively small but important number of Republic marks are also included. There are, by definition, no reign marks in the Republic Period, so I queried, what constituted the ‘non-reign’ marks in the previous dynasties? From what I can glean, they were either hall marks (so were still produced in the Imperial kilns, if genuine), potters’ marks and painters’ marks, but by far the greatest number were commendation or aspirational marks, referring to “the destination or ownership of an object, or (to) carry a message of commendation or good wishes” (From Davison’s book). Some marks were used to commemorate a very special event, and some were simply date marks. However, the relative proportions of these categories of marks changed during the Republic with reign marks (nearly all, if not all, apocryphal – there is still some dispute over whether the Hongxian or Jurentang marks can be labelled as reign marks) still making up the bulk of marks, but with private kiln or company marks making up the large majority of the rest. Hallmarks and commendations were still reasonably common, but the commendations moved location from the base of the porcelains to the written inscriptions on the sides of the porcelains in the Late Qing and Republic eras. Below, I will list almost 400 different marks from this era, and I am sure there are many more.

So these Late Qing and Republic aged porcelains have another very important attribute. Many of the non-imperial derived patterns have inscriptions, usually in black enamel and which include some or all of the following elements: poem; artist’s name and/or seal; calligrapher’s name; cyclical date; commendation or other wishes; place of manufacture; owner or patron. This gives us an enormous amount of information not accessible from the porcelains of earlier eras. I emphasise this aspect because it actually allows us to build up a picture of artists and companies and ideas and patterns which is unconceivable for earlier porcelains. Added to this is the fact that some of the Republic Period artists are still alive, or their offspring are, and they have been able to outline their histories first hand.

Davison states that more Chinese ceramics are unmarked rather than marked, but this is definitely not the case during the Republic Period. Very very few pieces are unmarked. The original reason for this may have been the requirement for place of origin to be shown on all imported items to the USA after 1891, but there must be other reasons as well, including the fact that there were so many new private companies itching to advertise their presence.

Because I have decided to include artist’s marks, the period covered by this overview will now stretch back into the later part of the Qing dynasty, into the Guangxu period, so as to capture the marks, seals and relevant inscriptions (dates) of the Qianjiang painters and their like. The hallmarks of the Republic period are for the most part reissues of older hall marks from the earlier Qing reigns, but with a few that were new to the Republic, such as Ju Ren Tang Zhi and Zhao De Tang Zhi.

I have tried very hard to get these marks translated correctly, both from members on the Gotheborg Discussion Board when I or others posted items for translation and also by hiring a couple of young Chinese translators here in Sydney. However, some of the translations may be incorrect or incomplete and I invite anyone to offer alternatives or corrections wherever possible.

As you will see below, by far the most common mark colour is overglaze iron red. This is partly because my collecting habits lie with the enamelled wares of this period rather than blue & white or monochromes. However, in this period, overwhelmingly more enamelled pieces were made compared to blue & white or monochromes, especially when compared to previous eras. This is mainly a result of the upheaval of the times and the breakdown of dynastic rule and control of the imperial kilns etc, but also because most of the artists of the time actually desired and preferred to work in this style. So the main colour was overglaze iron red, but there were several types of red – that is a discussion in itself. There was also a range of blues in the overglaze, enamelled blue marks, from royal blue to teal blue and grey blue. And so too the underglaze blue marks.

Although there are many fine examples of handwritten marks in this Late Qing and Republic period, most marks are stamped. There is no doubt a lot more to discuss regarding this aspect as well……

So, to the perennial problem, how to categorise the marks? How to divide them up?

Let’s see? A typical mark might comprise the place name first (e.g. Jiangxi, Jingdezhen, Jiujiang, Nanchang, Shanghai), then the Company or Shop name (e.g. Qing Hua, Guang Hua, Xin Zhong Hua, Da Xing etc) or Artist’s name (e.g. Chan Yu Chen, Guo Xie Cheng, Yong Xing Chang, Li Hua Chang etc) second and then the ‘designation’ (e.g. Gongsi, Ming Ci, Chu Pin, Zhen Pin, Zao). Some or all of these elements are typically present in a private kiln mark. So 6-7 characters are the norm. In some cases the place name is left off, as can be the ‘designation’.  A single company may have several different ways of hand writing its mark and many different mark stamps would have been used over time as well. The same range can apply to marks with an artist’s name.

Hallmarks tend to be simpler and usually comprise just 4 characters, often involving Tang and Zhi, and often revisiting and reusing hall marks from the earlier Qing reigns. It is really interesting to note how the Chinese translate the Republic Period hallmarks. In the translations of several chinese language books on Chinese ceramics hallmarks such as Ju Ren Tang Zhi or Da De Tang Zhi are variously translated as Made in Ju Ren Tang (when the chinese pinyin is usually translated into English) or Ju Ren Tang Shop, Da De Tang Shop. This is to suggest that the Chinese writers do not consider these marks to be real hallmarks as in the past, but the equivalent of shop marks. It would be very interesting to know about this in more detail.

Then the next question is in what order do I list the marks? Alphabetical is the obvious solution, but this will emphasise the place names as these are usually put first. However, this is the simplest and most direct method and I have done that here.

I have decided not to show images of the pieces, just the marks. The main reason is so as not to provide a library for fakesters and copyists to use. However, I would love to share these images with you because they tell a very interesting story – so if anyone wants me to show the corresponding image for a particular mark just let me know and I will post it.

A few basics about the designations (the parts of the mark, usually at the end or in the middle, which pertain to the type of organisation or person involved with the manufacture):

  • ‘Ming Ci’ means ‘famous’ or ‘name-brand’ porcelain
  • ‘Pin’ means  Product
  • ‘Zhen Pin’ means Precious Product
  • ‘Chu Pin’ means Product, with the “chu” referring to an item that is released to the world
  • ‘Zhi’ means Made in or by, has the connotation of “fabricated by”
  • ‘Gong Si’ or ‘Gongsi’  means Company in the legal sense – ‘Youxian Gongsi’ means Ltd. or Inc. and can sometimes be shortened just to ‘You’
  • ‘Cang’ means Collection of
  • ‘Zao’ means made by or in, tends to have the connotation of “manufactured by” in addition to “made”
  • ‘Xie’ , “to write”, written by?
  • Zi zao means made on the premises
  • ‘Shi’ = family, also clan, most often referring to someone’s surname
  • ‘Hua’ means painted by
  • ‘Hui’ means painted by as well, but may have subtle difference in meaning?
  • ‘Zuo’ means ‘Made by’
  • ‘Zhai’ or  ‘Zhai Zhi’ refers to Studio of

Please add any others or correct or refine those above (thank you  to D. Lane for the corrections!).

I do not read Chinese, so some of the translations into pinyin below may, when translated, be very obviously NOT a company or artist name and may be a simple commendation or other subject. I would appreciate any corrections. Thanks.

LATE QING & REPUBLIC MARKS (all are base marks unless noted, the numbers are my own file designations):

Ai Sheng_18_43 Ai Sheng_18_43, From the workshop of Wu Aisheng, artist, dating 1910-1926, Innovations and Creations book

Bai Shi Qi Chang_12_15 Bai Shi Qi Chang_12_15, Commendation mark meaning ‘Prosperity for hundreds of Generations’

Bao Long Chu Pin_01_11 Bao Long Chu Pin_01_11, Bao Long is a company name, so Product of Bao Long

Bao Long Chu Pin_25_21 Bao Long Chu Pin_25_21, product of Bao Long

Bao Sheng Chang Hao_20_14 Bao Sheng Chang Hao_20_14, painted by Bao Sheng Chang

Bao Yong Xuan Yong_3_33 Bao Yong Xuan Yong_3_33, No info, looks like a commendation of some type?

Bi Xi_18_48  Bi Xi_18_48 Bi Xi_18_48, Studio mark of Duan Bilan, means een Jade Stream 1912-1925, Simon Kwan. Davison’s marks book notes that this seal mark was used by Wang Qi

Bi Yun Xuan Zhi_18_80 Bi Yun Xuan Zhi_18_80, ‘Made for the Treasure of Azure Clouds’, from the Great Fortune book

Bing Rong Sheng Zao 1918_13_24 Bing Rong Sheng Zao 1918_13_24, Made by Bing Rong Sheng. This is probably the company name because the inscription indicates that this was painted by Song Lin Xuan in the Wu Wu year, 1918  Bing Rong Sheng Zao 1918_13_24i_Song Lin Xuan

Cai Bo Sen Zhi_28_18  Cai Bo Sen Zhi_28_18, made for or by Cai Bo Sen. This example and the ‘Cai Yan Cheng’ example just below are from the same maker, and are millefleur small lidded serving bowls

Cai Hua Tang Zhi_4_05 Cai Hua Tang Zhi_4_05, ‘Hall of Brilliant Splendour’ – Qianlong & Jiaqing hallmark but on a Republic period example

Cai Yan Cheng Zhi_27_43  Cai Yan Cheng Zhi_27_43, made for or by Cai Yan Cheng, see ‘Cai Bo Sen’ above

Cao Kun Chang Zao_14_13 Cao Kun Chang Zao_14_13, Made by Cao Kun Chang, company or artist

Chang Jiang Ci She Chu Pin_01_3 Changjiang Ci She Chu Pin_01_3, Changjiang Porcelain Association. Chang Jiang is the river which flows through Jingdezhen, and probably aslo a place in Jingdezhen?

Chang Jiang Cui Yun Xuan Hua 1919_3_34 Changjiang Cui Yun Xuan Hua 1919_3_34,  Drawn in the “Green Cloud Balcony” of Changjiang. Date of 1919 in the inscription, Chang Jiang is the river which flows through Jingdezhen.

Chao Ding Chang Zao 1918_13_25  Chao Ding Chang Zao 1918_13_25, Made by Chao Ding Chang?  From the inscription, In the Wu Wu year, 1918  Chao Ding Chang Zao 1918_13_25i

Chen Fa Xin Zao_20_44 Chen Fa Xin Zao_20_44, made by Chen Fa Xin

Chen Fu Xing Zao_10_27 Chen Fu Xing Zao_10_27, Inscription reads  ‘Jiangxi Chen Fu Xing Xie’,  made by Chen Fu Xing   Chen Fu Xing Zao_10_27_Jiangxi Chen Fu Xing Xie_i

Chen Wan Ren Zeng_5_39 Chen Wan Ren Zeng_5_39, Chen Wan Ren is probably the name of the buyer or patron of these wares, then given by him as a present, and to show his wealth to the recipients.

Chen Wan Ren Zeng_5_40 Chen Wan Ren Zeng_5_40, Chen Wan Ren is probably the name of the buyer or patron of these wares, then given by him as a present, and to show his wealth to the recipients.

Chen Yong Tai Zao 1915_14_56 Chen Yong Tai Zao 1915_14_56, Made by Chen Yong Tai, the artist, and from the inscription, Chen Yong Tai Zao 1915_14_56i made at Chang Jiang in the Yi Mao year, 1915

Chen You Fa Zao_26_53  Chen You Fa Zao_26_53, made by Chen You Fa

Cheng Guang Hua Xuan_21_12 Cheng Guang Hua Xuan_21_12 

Cheng Long Wan Pin 1924_14_07 Cheng Long Wan Pin 1924_14_07, Cheng Long Wan Pin 1924_14_07iCheng Long Wan Pin means “Successful Grand Joyful Product”. Inscription reads in part “Jia Zi Zhi Xia Yue Huang ? ?” = Summer 1924

Chu He Ciye Gongsi_5_38 Chu He Ciye Gongsi_5_38,  Chu He Porcelain Company

Chung Hua Ming Kuo_5_11 Chung Hua Ming Kuo_5_11, No info

Da De Tang Zhi_18_14 Da De Tang Zhi_18_14, from the Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain book, which translates this seeming hallmark as ‘Dadetang Shop’, held in the Pingxiang City Museum

Da Ri Qiu Lu Zhai Zao_07_08 Da Ri Qiu Lu Zhai Zao_07_08, No info, made by Da Ri Qiu Lu Zhai or is this a commendation?

Da Xin Zhen Pin_5_28 Da Xin Zhen Pin_5_28, Product of Da Xin company

Da Xin Zhen Pin_13_04 Da Xin Zhen Pin_13_04, Product of Da Xin company

Da Ya Qi_29_22 Da Ya Qi_29_22

Dai Heng Feng Zao_15_23 Dai Heng Feng Zao_15_23, Made by Dai Heng Feng company, and from the inscription  Dai Heng Feng Zao_15_23i the artist appears to be Bai ?

Dai Yue Sheng Zao 1907_14_50 Dai Yu Sheng Zao 1907_14_50, Made by the artist Dai Yu Sheng in the Ding Wei year 1907, from the inscription Dai Yue Sheng Zao 1907_14_50i

De Hua Mei Xing Chu Pin 1938_25_36 De Hua Mei Xing Chu Pin 1938_25_36, with an inscription which places the piece in the 26th year of the Republic, i.e. 1938

De Ji Zhen Pin_23_49  De Ji Zhen Pin_23_49

De Ji Zhen Pin 1933_24_29 De Ji Zhen Pin 1933_24_29, with a Gui You, 1933, date in the inscription. Possible artist Zou Wen Hou

De Long Zhen Pin_4_15  De Long Zhen Pin_4_15, Product of De Long company

De Long Zhen Pin_4_16De Long Zhen Pin_4_16, Product of De Long company

Deng Yin_12_10 Deng Yin_12_10, No info, presumably Deng Yin artist or studio name

Deng Yin_12_11 Deng Yin_12_11, No info, presumably Deng Yin artist or studio name

Deng Yin_12_11is Deng Yin_12_11is, This is a seal mark on the front of the plate above

Du Jiu Shan Bei_10_13 Du Jiu Shan Bei_10_13, Translated as ‘Gamble, Wine, Portion, Cup’ – on a small gambling cup! This has been discussed on the Gotheborg Discussion Board

Dun Ben Tang Zhi_28_56 Dun Ben Tang Zhi_28_56, Hall of Fundamental Honesty, a Daoguang period hallmark originally, but this example is Guangxu or Republic period

Dun Hou Tang Zhi_22_21 Dun Hou Tang Zhi_22_21, Hall of Honesty and Generosity, a Daoguang hallmark, the examples might be of the period or later Qing

Duo Fu Duo Shou Tang Zhi_5_32 Duo Fu Duo Shou Tang Zhi_5_32, ‘Made for the Hall of Abundant Happiness and Long Life’ – a Daoguang hallmark, but this is probably Republic in age.

En Shou Tang Zhi_3_29 En Shou Tang Zhi_3_29, A hallmark, not in Davison’s book so possibly Republic, but shape and decoration do look mid-late C19th.

Fang Ping Tai Hao 1916_14_58 Fang Ping Tai Hao 1916_14_58, Painted by Fang Ping Tao in 1916  Fang Ping Tai Hao 1916_14_58i

Feng Peng Yuan Tang_11_21 Feng Peng Yuan Tang_11_21, untranslated Hall or commendation mark (might be artist/company name?) but Republic

Feng Yu Chu Pin_13_01 Feng Yu Chu Pin_13_01, Product of Feng Yu company or artist

Fu Cheng Yong Zao_28_09 Fu Cheng Yong Zao_28_09, made by Fu Cheng Yong

Fu Shou Yong Chang_11_17 Fu Shou Yong Chang_11_17, Good Fortune and ?, commendation mark?

Fuliang Tao Zhi 1939_5_01 (1) Fuliang Tao Zhi 1939_5_01, According to S.Kwan this is a factory mark. Jingdezhen is in the county of Fuliang which is in the Province of Jiangxi.

Fu Xing Chang Zao 1923_16_23 Fu Xing Chang Zao 1923_16_23, Made by Fu Xing Chang, artist, confirmed in the inscription and dated to the Gui Hai year, 1923  Fu Xing Chang Zao 1923_16_2316_23i

Gao Bo Sheng Hao 1896_14_38 Gao Bo Sheng Hao 1896_14_38 Gao Heng Sheng Zao 1902_14_43i

Gao Bo Sheng Hao 1896_14_38_Xiao Shan Zuo _i  Painted by Gao Bo Sheng, made by Xiao Shan, or other way around? Is this the same Gao Bo Sheng who became the Superintendant of Jingdezhen under the rule of Yuan Shikai?

Gao Heng Sheng Zao 1902_14_43 Gao Heng Sheng Zao1902_14_43,  Made by Gao Heng Sheng and with the inscription Gao Heng Sheng Zao 1902_14_43i adding the date of 1902, Ren Yin.

Ge Se Lao X You Se Ke Zhen 1917_14_18 Ge Se Lao ? You Se Ke Zhen 1917_14_18, As translated by kh chan (Gotheborg Discussion Board) the mark is really like an advertisement “selling all kinds of old brands at a trusted price and quality”! Ge Se Lao X You Se Ke Zhen 1917_14_18i In the inscription a date of 1917.

Gong Qin Tang Zhi_07_20 Gong Qin Tang Zhi_07_20, ‘Hall of Diligence in Public Affairs’ – Daoguang Hallmark, but Republic era bowl.

Gong Xing Chang Hua_15_38 Gong Xing Chang Hua_15_38 Presumably a company or owner’s name, from a large dinner set of over 100 pieces.

Gu Huan_18_23 Gu Huan_18_23, Studio mark of Pan Taoyu, means Ancient Joy, Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain book, held in the Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum.

Gu Huan 1920_18_57 Gu Huan 1920_18_57, Studio mark of Pan Taoyu, means Ancient Joy, dated to 1920 in the inscription, S. Kwan’s Republic Porcelain book.

Gu Huan1925_18_37 (1) Gu Huan 1925_18_37, Studio mark of Pan Taoyu, means Ancient Joy, dated to 1925 in the inscription, Innovations and Creations book.

Gu Shi_18_25 Gu Shi_18_25, Studio name of Tian Hexian, means Ancient Stone, from Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain book, held in the Jiangxi Provincial Museum.

Gu Shi 1933_18_58 Gu Shi 1933_18_58, Studio name of Tian Hexian, means Ancient Stone, from S.Kwan’s Republic Porcelain book, dated to 1933 in the inscription.

Gu Yue Xuan Zhi_4_03 Gu Yue Xuan Zhi_4_03, “Made for the Pavillion of the Ancient Moon”, a Yongzheng and Qianlong Hall mark according to Davison, but in this case early C20th vases. This type of porcelain – the originals from the early Qing period – is said to be the model upon which the ‘imperial’ porcelain of the Hongxian reign (1916) were meant to be based.

Gu Yue Xuan Zhi_18_16  Gu Yue Xuan Zhi_18_16, see above but in this reference, the Complete Collection of Jiangxi Porcelain, and held in the Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum, it is translated as Guyuexuan Shop!

Gu Yue Xuan_5_35 Gu Yue Xuan_5_35, A similar hallmark to the one above without the ‘zhi’, but of late Guangxu or Republic age.

Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1887_13_15 Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1887_13_15, Mark says “Made under supervision of the Imperial Kiln”. Inscription indicates that the vase was made in 1887, and is painted by Xu Pinheng. It is very likely that Xu Pinheng was one of the few employed by the Imperial kiln as a contract porcelain painter. This vase was discussed on the Gotheborg List.

Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_16_18 Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_16_18, See above. This inscription indicates that the artist was Xu Pin Heng, Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_16_18iwas painted in the Bing Xu year, 1886 at Chang Jiang, Ke Ci

Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_21_17  Guan Yao Jian Zhi 1886_21_17, Official Ware made, see above. The inscription gives a Bing Xu 1886 date

Guan Yao Nei Zao_08_02 Guan Yao Nei Zao_08_02, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, with the current hypothesis that this is the mark used for private use of the Imperial kiln when it was not filling orders for the Emperors. Examples show a range of quality. Late C19th-Early C20th period – the earliest dating is 1887 and the latest dating below is 1907.

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1891_13_12 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1891_13_12, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln – inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1891_13_12i alludes to a Yu Zhu Ming as artist made in 1891

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_13_14 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_13_14, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, signed Zhu Shao Quan in the inscription, and dated 1894

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1907_3_18 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1907_3_18, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, Ding Wei 1907 in the inscription

Guan Yao Nei Zao_3_28 Guan Yao Nei Zao_3_28, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln

Guan Yao Nei Zao_4_37 Guan Yao Nei Zao_4_37, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln

Guan Yao Nei Zao_5_14 Guan Yao Nei Zao_5_14, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln

Guan Yao Nei Zao_5_41 Guan Yao Nei Zao_5_41, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln

Guan Yao Nei Zao_13_10 Guan Yao Nei Zao_13_10, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_13_13 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_13_13, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_13_13i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1890_14_29 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1890_14_29, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1890 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1890_14_29i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_30 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_30, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_30i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_31 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_31, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_31i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_32 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_32, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1892 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1892_14_32i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_33 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_33, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_33i Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_33ia 1893 in the inscriptions

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_34 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_34, Made in the Government

(Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1893 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_34i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_35 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_35, Made in the Government

(Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1893 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1893_14_35i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_36 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_36, Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_36_Lei Guang Heng_iMade in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, signed by Lei Guang Heng in the inscription, dated to 1894

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_37 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_37, Guan Yao Nei Zao 1894_14_37_Mei Chun Mao_iMade in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, signed by Mei Chun Mao and dated 1894 in the inscription

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1896_14_39 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1896_14_39, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1896 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1896_14_39i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1899_14_41 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1899_14_41, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1899 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1899_14_41i

Guan Yao Nei Zao 1902_14_44 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1902_14_44, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1902 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao 1902_14_44i

Guan Yao Nei Zao  1898_16_20 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1898_16_20, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated 1898 in the inscription Guan Yao Nei Zao  1898_16_20i

Guan Yao Nei Zao  1887_16_26 Guan Yao Nei Zao 1887_16_26, Made in the Government (Imperial) Kiln, and dated Ding Hai, 1887 in the inscription,  Guan Yao Nei Zao  1887_16_26ipainted by Xiang Shan/Yu Huan Wen (different names for the same person) at Zhu Shan, Xi Xuan. Yu Huanwen is a known Guangxu period artist

Guang Fu Chang Xuan_28_21 Guang Fu Chang Xuan_28_21, made by Guang Fu Chang company 

 

Guang Xu Guan Yao_12_13 Guang Xu Guan Yao_12_13, Guangxu Imperial Kiln

Guangxu Ding Hai Nian Zhi 1887_22_57 Guang Xu Ding Hai Nian Zhi 1887_22_57, a very uncommon type of mark where the date, Ding Hai 1887, is actually within the base mark

Guang Ya Ci She Chu Pin_23_01 Guang Ya Ci She Chu Pin_23_01, this may be related to the Jiangxi Guang Ya company or Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935), possibly a later mark near to the time of its closure in 1935

Guangxu Nian Qingyun Zhi 1898_14_40 Guangxu Nian Qingyun Zhi 1898_14_40, This is an unusual mix of a period mark (Guangxu) with an artist (Ma Qingyun), and dated 1898 in the inscription  Guangxu Nian Qingyun Zhi 1898_14_40_Ma Qingyun_i

Gui Bi_06_03 Gui Bi_06_03, Base mark is shown – Artist’s name Gui Bi or seal?

Guo Hua Mei Shu Ci Dian_16_44_2 Guo Hua Mei Shu Ci Dian_16_44, Not sure of the meaning of this mark, whether it has some quasi-government association, or just the name of a company/factory

Guo Huo Zhi Guang_26_38 Guo Huo Zhi Guang_26_38, meaning ‘the pride of national production’, this mark on the base of a tea bowl whose lid has a mark ‘Jiangxi Wang Long Tai Zao’

Guo Xie Cheng Tang_15_19  Guo Xie Cheng Tang_15_19, Not sure what the Tang means here. All these ‘Guo Xie Cheng’ marked pieces are dragon and phoenix pattern with a multi-coloured key fret.

Guo Xie Cheng Tang_15_20 Guo Xie Cheng Tang_15_20, See above

Guo Xie Cheng Zhi_3_22 Guo Xie Cheng Zhi_3_22, Made by Guo Xie Cheng, artist or company

Han Qing 1933_14_62 Han Qing 1933_14_62, Han Qing 1933_14_62i Han Qing is the name mark for artist Yu Hanqing, dated 1933 in the inscription

Han Qing 1941_18_73 Han Qing 1941_18_73, name mark of Yu Hanqing, dated to 1941 in the inscription, from S.Kwan’s Republic Porcelain book

Hankou Zhu Shan Chu Pin_16_39 Hankou Zhu Shan Chu Pin_16_39, Made In Hankou, but relationship to Zhushan (Pearl Hill – site of the Imperial kiln in Jingdezhen) is unknown at this stage. The calligrapher of this mark also wrote marks for Nanchang, Jiujiang and Jiangxi companies, many of which were decorated with dragon and phoenix pattern, as this one is. See similar example below

Hankou Zhu Shan Zhen Pin_1_28 Hankou Zhu Shan Zhen Pin_1_28, Made In Hankou, but relationship to Zhushan (Pearl Hill – site of the Imperial kiln in Jingdezhen) is unknown at this stage. The calligrapher of this mark also wrote marks for Nanchang, Jiujiang and Jiangxi companies, many of which were decorated with dragon and phoenix pattern, as this one is.

He Cheng Chang_3_32 He Cheng Chang_3_32, ‘He Chen Chang’ is a porcelain company’s name in Chao Zhou(潮州)City, Guangdong Province

Heng Li Chu Pin_01_9 Heng Li Chu Pin_01_9, Product of Heng Li Company or artist, 2 examples (see below) both millefleur pattern.

Heng Li Chu Pin_01_10 Heng Li Chu Pin_01_10, Heng Li Company or artist

Heng Shen Ji Zhi_10_11 Heng Shen Ji Zhi_10_11, Also has a stamped ‘MADE IN CHINA’ mark, Heng Sheng Ji company or artist.

Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_10 Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_10, Product of Heng Xin company or artist, all 3 examples (see below) are of the millefleur pattern. Or does Heng have a special meaning?

Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_11 Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_11, This bowl was sold with another exactly the same, but the other had a stamped 6 character Qianlong kaishu mark in iron red.

Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_14 Heng Xin Chu Pin_11_14, Product of Heng Xin company or artist

Hou Yu Chu_20_24 Hou Yu Chu_20_24, with an inscription indicating that this was made by Shi Yu Chu at Yangshan

He De Chang Zao_07_12 Hu De Chang Zao_07_12, Made by Hu De Chang, company or artist

Hu X Weng Zao 1923_21_01 Hu ? Weng Zao 1923_21_01, the inscription giving a Gui Hai 1923 dating

Hu Yan Xing Hui_12_30 Hu Yan Xing Hui_12_30, Painted by Hu Yan Xing and the inscription says  Hu Yan Xing Hui_12_30i_Jiangxi Yan Xing Chu Pin ‘Jiangxi Yan Xing Chu Pin’ and also ‘Ren Jia Yi Bi Liu’ Hu Yan Xing Hui_12_30ia

Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1927_14_09 Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1927_14_09, This was discussed on the Gotheborg site, artist is Hu Hai Qing (from the inscriptions), company name is Hu Yuan Xin, and dated 1927 in the inscription Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1927_14_09i Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1927_14_09iaSee below for another interpretation

Wu Yuan Kum Zao 1921_14_27  Hu Yuan Xin Zao 1921_14_27, Made by Hu Yuan Xin in the year of Xin You (1921)

Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_01 Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_01, Made by Hu Yuan Xin, a known early C20th artist according to the Canon of Ceramic Painting book,  with the inscription indicating that the company name is Yi Cheng Xuan and that the decoration is in imitation of Liu Ru’s works.Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_01i So this information is in contradiction of the example above

Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_28 Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_28, Hu Yuan Xin Zao_16_28i The inscription on this example shows that the artist’s name is Hu Hai Qing, a known Guangxu period artist. The 1927 dating from the two examples above shows that this artist was active for many years

Hu Yuan Xing Zao_15_16 Hu Yuan Xing Zao_15_16, Made by Hu Yuan Xing. Only the lid of this teabowl set has this mark. The mark on the bowl is a stamped red 4 character Tongzhi seal mark. This is not the same maker as Hu Yuan Xin, above

Hua Cha Gong Si Chu Pin_14_17 Hua Cha Gong Si Chu Pin_14_17, The Hua Cha and Ji Hua Cha company made tea caddies. Many tea caddies of the Republic period have one of these marks and often also have a red ‘CHINA’ mark. Others are either unmarked or have just the ‘CHINA’ mark. ”Hua” means China, ”Cha” means tea, ”Hua Cha” here is a name of a tea producing company in Shang Hai, but the porcelain is produced for it by a Jingdezhen porcelain company

Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_01_22  Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_01_22, See above

Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_01_8 Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_01_8, See Hua Cha company above for info

Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_1_20 Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_1_20, See Hua Cha company above for info

Hua Cha Gong Si Chu Pin_16_34 Hua Cha Gongsi Chu Pin_16_34, See Hua Cha company above for info

Hua Chang Ci Ye Shang Dian_08_01 Hua Chang Ci Ye Shang Dian_08_01, No info, presumably a company name. Some other examples with this pattern have a Shanghai mark, so the pattern, which is new to the Republic in this form, may have originated here.

Hua Cui Ciye Gongsi_27_54 Hua Cui Ciye Gongsi_27_54, Hua Cui Company with the inscription indicating that this is a Shanghai company.

Hua Ji Chu Pin_10_20 Hua Ji Chu Pin_10_20, Hua Ji Chu Pin_10_20i The inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Hua Ji Chu Pin’ so presumably Hua Ji company or artist of Jiangxi

Hua Tai Ciye Gongsi_26_27 Hua Tai Ciye Gongsi_26_27, Hua Tai Company

Hua Zhen Hua Shi_16_03 Hua Zhen Hua Shi_16_03, Hua Zhen company? and from the inscription the artist is Luo Zhonglin, Hua Zhen Hua Shi_16_03i a known Republic period artist

Hua Zhen Chu Pin_15_01 Hua Zhen Chu Pin_15_01, Product of Hua Zhen company or artist

Huang Ji X Mao Xiang X 1920_14_22 Huang Ji ? Mao Xiang ? 1920_14_22,  No info on the mark, but the inscription says that Qing Chang was the artist and Zhu Shan, Rong Ci was

the place this was made, and dated 1920 Huang Ji X Mao Xiang X 1920_14_22i_Qing Chang

Huang Jin Gu Xuan_11_01 Huang Jin Gu Xuan_11_01, Huang Jin Gu Xuan_11_01_Jiangxi X Gu Xuan Chu Pin_i The inscription reads ‘Jiangxi  ? Gu Xuan Chu Pin’  so the company or artist name of ? Gu Xuan? Or Huang Jin Gu?

Huang Xin Xing Hao_16_14 Huang Xin Xing Hao_16_14, Painted by Huang Xin Xing, with the inscription reading ‘Imitation of works from Yuan Dynasty’ Huang Xin Xing Hao_16_14i

Hui Tong Zhen Pin_19_26 Hui Tong Zhen Pin_19_26, precious product of Hui Tong

Hui Xie Hua Xuan_16_24 Hui Xie Hua Xuan_16_24, Painted by Xie Hua Huan?

 

Hunan Mofan Yaoye Gongchang_5_02 Hunan Mofan Yaoye Gongchang_5_02, This mark from Simon Kwan’s book, dated 1921. Hunan Province factory name, innovative use of enamels directly on the biscuit.

Ji Chang Jian Zh_28_22 Ji Chang Jian Zhi_28_22, made by Ji Chang Company

Ji De Tang Zhi_06_22 Ji De Tang Zhi_06_22, This hallmark not in Davison’s book so possibly a new Republic hallmark, ’Hall of Primary Virtue’. This example is early C20th

Ji Xiang Ru Yi_09_22 Ji Xiang Ru Yi_09_22, ‘May your Good Fortune be as you wish’ – a Tongzhi commendation. This shape and pattern typically is Guangxu or Tongzhi mark & period.

Ji Xiang Ru Yi_29_05 Ji Xiang Ru Yi_29_05, a similar object to that above

Ji Zhen_06_08 Ji Zhen_06_08, Ji Zhen is a seal mark, this piece was discussed on the list, Ji Zhen_06_08i  Ji Zhen_06_08iaand translation of the inscription shows that decoration is ‘freehand painting by Wu Ji Zhen’

Jian Guo Gongsi1951_18_38 (1) Jian Guo Gongsi 1951_18_38, Signed in the inscription by Tian Hexian, base mark refers to the ‘Jiangxi Jian Guo Gongsi’ or Jiangxi Jianguo Ceramics Company. Dated to 1951 in the inscription, from Innovations and Creations book

Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_05_16 X Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_05_16, Thought at first this might be Jian Hua, but not …. the inscription may give more clues? Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_05_16i

Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_14 Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_14, Jian Hua Porcelain Company. This company was started in 1919 and was still in operation in 1930, in Shanghai

Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_15 Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_15, Jian Hua Porcelain Company, see above.Note that this is a stamped mark on a piece of equivalent quality to the handwritten mark pieces

Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_16 Jian Hua Ci Ye Gongsi_10_16, Jian Hua Porcelain Company, see above

Jian Hua Ciye Gongsi_06_11 Jian Hua Ciye Gongsi_06_11, Jian Hua Porcelain Company, see above Jian Hua Ciye Gongsi_06_11i Inscription untranslated

Jian Hua Gongsi Chu Pin_25_48 Jian Hua Gongsi Chu Pin_25_48, Product of Jian Hua Company

Jian Yi Yuan Hao Chu Pin_01_18 Jian Yi Yuan Hao Chu Pin_01_18, Painted by Jian Yi Yuan

Jiang Fu Chang Hao_20_15 Jiang Fu Chang Hao_20_15, painted by Fu Chang

Jiang Li He Zao_21_37 Jiang Li He Zao_21_37, made by Li He

Jiang Ming Ci Chu Pin_15_32 Jiang Ming Ci Chu Pin_15_32, Unusual 5 character mark (unless the stamp was broken off with the ‘Xi’ character!)

Jiangxi _ _ Xing Chu Pin_01_14 Jiangxi  ?? Xing Chu Pin_01_14,  Untranslated, but probably a company name

Jiangxi _ Ci Gong Ren Sheng Chan Wu Chang Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi ? Ci Gong Ren Sheng Chan Wu Chang Chu Pin_1, Product of ? Ci Gong Ren Sheng Chan Wu Chang

Jiangxi _ De Ji Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi ? De Ji Chu Pin_1, Product of ? De Ji

Jiangxi Bing Xing Chu Pin_27_55 Jiangxi Bing Xing Chu Pin_27_55

Jiangxi Cao Hua Ji Chu Pin_24_69 Jiangxi Cao Hua Ji Chu Pin_24_69

Jiangxi Chen Hua Zhen Chu Pin_26_75 Jiangxi Chen Hua Zhen Chu Pin_26_75, made by Hua Zhen in the inscription

Jiangxi Chen Kuan Ji Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi Chen Kuan(?) Ji Chu Pin_1, Product of Chen Kuan (?) Ji

Jiangxi Chen Sheng Fa Chu Pin_19_24  Jiangxi Chen Sheng Fa Chu Pin_19_24

Jiangxi Chen Yu Xing Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi Chen Yu Xing Chu Pin_1, Product of Chen Yu Xing

Jiangxi Cheng Xing Fa Chu Pin_24_58 Jiangxi Cheng Xing Fa Chu Pin_24_58

Jiangxi Cheng Yu Ji Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi Cheng Yu Ji Chu Pin_1, Product of Cheng Yu Ji

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_40 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_40, Generic mark for a large range of utilitarian and more refined porcelains made in Jiangxi province. ‘Chu Pin’ means sincere production

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_41 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_41, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_42 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_42, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_43 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_43, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_44 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_44, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_45 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_45, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_46 Jiangxi Chu Pin_1_46, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_4_31 Jiangxi Chu Pin_4_31, Generic mark, see above Jiangxi Chu Pin_4_31iThe inscription indicates that this item was made by Huang Jun Shun. There is a known Guangxu period artist called Huang Jushun, but this example is almost certainly Republic in age

Jiangxi Chu Pin_5_42 Jiangxi Chu Pin_5_42, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_12_19 Jiangxi Chu Pin_12_19, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Chu Pin_18_04 Jiangxi Chu Pin_18_04, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ci Chang Gongsi 1922_15_58 Jiangxi Ci Chang Gongsi 1922_15_58, Company name with the inscription giving the artist’s name as De Ming Jiangxi Ci Chang Gongsi 1922_15_58i and dated to the Ren Xu year, 1922

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1923_14_06 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1923_14_06, This is the mark for the Jiangxi Porcelain Company, a well-known company which took over much of the production which previously had been undertaken by the Imperial kilns. It was started in 1910 and continued production until at least the 1940s. Generally the quality of pieces with this mark is above average. I have taken out some of the marks which may be copies or fakes, but cannot guarantee that all the marks below are genuine, but I have tried!

This particular mark is an example of an overglaze blue Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi mark. Most of the overglaze blue marks of this company which I have seen are of this slightly dirty grey blue colour, very different in hue from the standard overglaze royal blue one sees on other Republic-aged pieces. Untranslated inscription Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1923_14_06i on this piece.

From the examples below it is obvious that only 2 or 3 calligraphers were writing the mark in the first 20 or 30 years at least. Both the underglaze blue and overglaze red marks show a similarity in style with a slight skew to the characters which reminds me of ‘left-hand’ writers of ‘English’ script. Some of the most special examples have the marks within a double underglaze blue circle (and the marks are underglaze blue also).

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_1 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_1   Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_2 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_2   Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_3 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_3   Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_4 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_4   Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_5 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_5   Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_6 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_6   Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_7 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_7  Jiangxi Porcelain Company, note the grey-blue enamelled mark

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_8 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_8  Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This lidded serving dish is dated in the inscription to the 36th year of the Chinese Republic (1912+35), meaning 1947. This writer of this more cursive mark I am rating therefore as a later calligrapher.

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_9 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_9  Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This is a rare stamped mark from this company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_10 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_10 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_11 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_11 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_12 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_12 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_14 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_14 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_15 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_15 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_16 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_16 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_17 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_17 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_18 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_18  Jiangxi Porcelain Company, note the grey-blue enamelled mark

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_19 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_19  Jiangxi Porcelain Company, note the grey-blue enamelled mark

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_20 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_20 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This version of the mark may be a copy. It is very stiff and contained. However, I have seen other examples which are similar.

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_21 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_21 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This example also has a double blue circle.

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_22 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_22 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_23 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_23 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_24 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_24 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_25 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_25 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_27 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_27 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_28 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_28 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This is another rarer stamped mark from this company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_29 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_29 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. A stamped mark on a fairly ordinary utilitarian piece.

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_30 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_30 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_31 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_31 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_32 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_32 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_33 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_33 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_34 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_34 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_35 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_35 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_38 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_38 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_39 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_2_39 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_12 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_12 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_13 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_13 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. Another stamped mark, but on a delightful bird and flower decorated pot, signed  Xiao Yu.

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_14 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_14 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_15 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_15 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_16 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_16 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. Another stamped mark, but on a grasshopper and flower decorated bowl, dated 1941, signed Ni Longguang.

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_23 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_23 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_24 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_24 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_25 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_25 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_26 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_06_26 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_12_25 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_12_25 Jiangxi Porcelain Company. This and the following bowl are dated by Bonhams to the 2nd quarter of the C20th, good provenance

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_12_26 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_12_26 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_17 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_17 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_18 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_18 Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1918_15_36 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1918_15_36, Jiangxi Porcelain Company, with an inscription dating the teapot Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 1918_15_36ito the Spring of Min Guo Year 7, 1918

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_42 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_42, Jiangxi Porcelain Company. These inscriptions have not yet been translated, anyone? Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_42i The first starts with Jiangxi Porcelain Company, but I can’t read the last three characters. The rest?Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_42ia

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_50 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_15_50, Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_16_40 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_16_40, Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_34 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_34, Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_88 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_88, Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_89 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi_18_89, Jiangxi Porcelain Company

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Chu Pin_1, Product of the Jiangxi Porcelain Company, stamped circle mark from the 1940s

Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Jing Zhen_26_07 Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Jing Zhen_26_07, another Late Republic/early PRC example from the Jiangxi Porcelain Company in its dying days

Jiangxi Da Feng Chu Pin_09_01 Jiangxi Da Feng Chu Pin_09_01, Da Feng is company or artist’s name. Jiangxi Da Feng Chu Pin_09_01i Untranslated inscription.

Jiangxi Dong Fang Ci She_15_10 Jiangxi Dong Fang Ci She_15_10, Jiangxi Dong Fang Ci She_15_10iInscription reads Jiangxi He Ji Chu Pin. Not sure which is the artist which is the company or association – Dong Fang or He Ji?

Jiangxi Ding Yi Xing Chu Pin_15_02 Jiangxi Ding Yi Xing Chu Pin_15_02, Product of Ding Yi Xing company, with the front inscription indicating the piece Jiangxi Ding Yi Xing Chu Pin_15_02i  was made at Zhushan and painted by Yi Xing, who is a known Republic period artist

Jiangxi Du Xiao Lou Chu Pin_20_05 Jiangxi Du Xiao Lou Chu Pin_20_05

Jiangxi Duan Song Mao Zao_5_21 Jiangxi Duan Song Mao Zao_5_21, Duan Song Mao is a known Republic period artist

Jiangxi Fu Chang Chu Pin_23_07_2 Jiangxi Fu Chang Chu Pin_23_07_2

Jiangxi Fu Ren Shu Shi Chu Pin_25_32 Jiangxi Fu Ren Shu Shi Chu Pin_25_32

Jiangxi Gan Hua Gongsi_1_30 Jiangxi Gan Hua Gongsi_1_30, Gan Hua is the company’s name, note calligraphic style

Jiangxi Gong Chang Chu Pin_25_31 Jiangxi Gong Chang Chu Pin_25_31

Jiangxi Guan Yao Min Ci_09_24 Jiangxi Guan Yao Ming Ci_09_24, This may be a variant of the Guan Yao Nei Zao (Made in the Imperial Kiln) mark, underglaze blue scrolling lotus pattern

Jiangxi Guang Hua Gong Si_14_20 Jiangxi Guang Hua Gongsi_14_20, Guang Hua is the company’s name Jiangxi Guang Hua Gong Si_14_20i

Jiangxi Guang Hua Gongsi_1_32  Jiangxi Guang Hua Gongsi_1_32, Guang Hua is the company’s name

Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_5_46 Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_5_46, Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935)

Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_07_25 Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_07_25, Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935)

Jiangxi Guang Ya Gong Si_15_13 Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi_15_13, Jiangxi Brilliant Asia Company (1920-1935). Note the grey-blue enamelled mark

Jiangxi Guo Hua Zhen Pin_5_22 Jiangxi Guo Hua Zhen Pin_5_22, Precious Object of Jiangxi National Splendour – Guangxu, might be a company name or an aspirational name

Jiangxi Guo Long Sheng Chu Pin_27_64 Jiangxi Guo Long Sheng Chu Pin_27_64

Jiangxi He Xing Gongsi_26_51 Jiangxi He Xing Gongsi_26_51, Hexing Company

Jiangxi He Xing Gongsi 1936_27_42 Jiangxi He Xing Gongsi 1936_27_42, Hexing Company, dated in the inscription to the 24th year of the Republic, 1936

Jiangxi He Yi Chang Chu Pin_24_50 Jiangxi He Yi Chang Chu Pin_24_50

Jiangxi He Yi Ji Chu Pin_20_33 Jiangxi He Yi Ji Chu Pin_20_33

Jiangxi Hu Fu Ji Chu Pin_15_03 Jiangxi Hu Fu Ji Chu Pin_15_03, Product of Hu Fu Ji company or artist

Jiangxi Hu Fu Ji Chu Pin_20_37 Jiangxi Hu Fu Ji Chu Pin_20_37, as above

Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Chu Pin_13_06 Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Chu Pin_13_06, Hu Hua Chang is the artist’s name, see next example Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Chu Pin_13_06i

Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Zao_1_35 Jiangxi Hu Hua Chang Zao_1_35, Hu Hua Chang is a Republic period artist

Jiangxi Hu Mao Ji_20_28 Jiangxi Hu Mao Ji_20_28

Jiangxi Hu Sen Yuan Chu Pin_1  Jiangxi Hu Sen Yuan Chu Pin_1, Product of Hu Sen Yuan

Jiangxi Hu Xiang Tai Chu Pin_24_08  Jiangxi Hu Xiang Tai Chu Pin_24_08

Jiangxi Hu Yuan Tai Zao_24_15 Jiangxi Hu Yuan Tai Zao_24_15

Jiangxi Hu Zheng Fa Chu Pin_21_08 Jiangxi Hu Zheng Fa Chu Pin_21_08

Jiangxi Hua Cai Chu Pin_16_31 Jiangxi Hua Cai Chu Pin_16_31, Product of the Hua Cai company in Zhushan, Jiangxi Jiangxi Hua Cai Chu Pin_16_31i

Jiangxi Hua Chang Chu Pin_18_02 Jiangxi Hua Chang Chu Pin_18_02, Product of the Hua Chang Company

Jiangxi Hua Zhen Chu Pin_16_25 Jiangxi Hua Zhen Chu Pin_16_25, Product of the Hua Zhen company, with the inscription showing that Jiangxi Hua Zhen Chu Pin_16_25i the artist was Luo Zhonglin. See Hua Zhen Hua Shi_16_03 for a similar company mark with Luo Zhonglin also as artist

Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_21_27 Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_21_27, with an inscription “precious object made by Luo Zhonglin”.

Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_24_40  Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_24_40

Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_26_12 Jiangxi Hua Zhen Hua Shi Chu Pin_26_12

Jiangxi Huang Jun X Chu Pin_20_38 Jiangxi Huang Jun ? Chu Pin_20_38

Jiangxi Huang Shun Fa Chu Pin_20_41 Jiangxi Huang Shun Fa Chu Pin_20_41

Jiangxi Ji Tai Chang Chu Pin_24_27 Jiangxi Ji Tai Chang Chu Pin_24_27

Jiangxi Jin Ji Zao Chu Pin_23_48 Jiangxi Jin Ji Zao Chu Pin_23_48

Jiangxi Jin Tang Ci She_1_34 Jiangxi Jin Tang Ci She_1_34, Company name, Jin Tang means Golden Hall

Jiangxi Jing Hua Bi Pin_25_14 Jiangxi Jing Hua Bi Pin_25_14

Jiangxi Jing Mei Gongsi_24_05 Jiangxi Jing Mei Gongsi_24_05, Jing Mei Company

Jiangxi Jing Mei Gongsi_24_10 Jiangxi Jing Mei Gongsi_24_10, Jing Mei Company

Jiangxi Jing Tao Gongsi_10_12 Jiangxi Jing Tao Gongsi_10_12, Jing Tao is probably the company name: the left part of inscription Jiangxi Jing Tao Gongsi_10_12_Jiangxi Xin Chang Chu Pin_i reads ‘Jiangxi Xin Chang Chu Pin’ indicating that the artist may be called Xin Chang

Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She 1950_06_19 Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She 1950_06_19,  Ming Xing may be the company name. Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She 1950_06_19i Jing Zhen is a shortening of Jingdezhen. According to Christies, the inscription indicates a dating to 1950

Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She_21_21 Jiangxi Jing Zhen Ming Xing Ci She_21_21

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Di Qi Gong Ye Cun Chu Pin_24_03 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Di Qi Gong Ye Cun Chu Pin_24_03

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Di Yi Ci (Chang) Chu Pin_25_05 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Di Yi Ci (Chang) Chu Pin_25_05

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_1_70 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_1_70, Generic name for one or more companies/factories in Jingdezhen. This mark appears to be a transitional or early one before wares similar to this one were stamped with factory circle marks during the 1950s and 1960s

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci_13 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_13, Generic name for one or more companies/factories in Jingdezhen. This mark has no factory number and the pattern is completely hand painted

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci_16 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci_16, Generic name for one or more companies/factories in Jingdezhen. This mark has no factory number and the pattern is completely hand painted

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci Nanchang Yuejin Shang Fang X_24_46 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ming Ci Nanchang Yuejin Shang Fang ?_24_46

Jiangxi Jingdezhen Zao_1_36 Jiangxi Jingdezhen Zao_1_36, see above

Jiangxi Jingdezhen X Ming Ci_23_40 Jiangxi Jingdezhen ? Ming (1) Ci_23_40 

Jiangxi Li Chen Yong Fa Zao_25_47 Jiangxi Li Chen Yong Fa Zao_25_47

Jiangxi Li Fuchang Meishu Ci She_25_20 Jiangxi Li Fuchang Meishu Ci She_25_20, Li Fuchang Ceramic Painting Studio in Jiangxi

Jiangxi Li He Chu Pin_07_10 Jiangxi Li He Chu Pin_07_10, Jiangxi Li He Chu Pin_07_10_Jiangxi Huang Lihe Chupin_i Huang Li He is a known Republic period artist, the inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Huang Li He Chu Pin’

Jiangxi Li Ji Gongsi_1_31 Jiangxi Li Ji Gongsi_1_31, Jiangxi Li Ji Gongsi_1_31ia Ren(?) Li Ji or Li Ji is the company name, from the inscription ‘Jiangxi Ren(?) Li Ji Chu Pin’

Jiangxi Li Ji Gong Si 1920_15_12 Jiangxi Li Ji Gongsi 1920_15_12, Jiangxi Li Ji Gong Si 1920_15_12iMade by the Li Ji company, and from the inscription was made at Zhu Shan and possibly dated to the Geng Chen year, 1920

Jiangxi Li Sheng 1948_06_10 Jiangxi Li Sheng 1948_06_10, Li Sheng is the company or artist’s name, located in Jiujiang; the inscription  on the other side of this teapot gives a 1948 date and indicates that it was an engagement present to a named couple

Jiangxi Li Sheng_16_50 Jiangxi Li Sheng_16_50, Company/artist base mark and on the bottom of the inside of this bowl is the red mark shown: Jiangxi Li Sheng_16_50inside bowl_Yang San Fu Tangreading Yang San Fu Tang, apparently also a company name or commendation?

Jiangxi Ling Mei Cai Chu Pin 1953_20_06 Jiangxi Ling Mei Cai Chu Pin 1953_20_06, with a Gui Si, 1953, dating in the inscription

Jiangxi Ling Mei Cai Chu Pin 1947_20_07 Jiangxi Ling Mei Cai Chu Pin 1947_20_07, with a 1947 dating in the inscription

Jiangxi Liu He Ji Chu Pin_27_04 Jiangxi Liu He Ji Chu Pin_27_04

Jiangxi Liu Rong Sheng Chu Pin_01_2 Jiangxi Liu Rong Sheng Chu Pin_01_2, Company or artist’s name. Liu Rong Sheng was a famous Ming dynasty artist according to research by my translator, but she may have meant Qing!

Jiangxi Liu Rongsheng Chu Pin_24_25 Jiangxi Liu Rong Sheng Chu Pin_24_25

Jiangxi Liu Sheng He Chu Pin_1Jiangxi Liu Sheng He Chu Pin_1, Product of Liu Sheng He

Jiangxi Lize Xuan Chu Pin 1954_23_76 Jiangxi Lize Xuan Chu Pin 1954_23_76, an early PRC example from the reincarnation of this company (Lize Xuan, originally owned by Liang Duishi until his death in 1937, reopened after the war c. 1946 by Liang’s son)

Jiangxi Lize Xuan Zao_25_10 Jiangxi Lize Xuan Zao_25_10

Jiangxi Mei Shu Ci Chang_09_02 Jiangxi Mei Shu Ci Chang_09_02, Jiangxi Art Porcelain Company, from the inscription  Jiangxi Mei Shu Ci Chang_09_02i   made by Nie Xing Sheng, dated circa 1945

Jiangxi Mi Long Fa Chu Pin_5_23 Jiangxi Mi Long Fa Chu Pin_5_23, Company or Artist’s name of Mi Long Fa

Jiangxi Min Zheng Xing Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi Min Zheng Xing Chu Pin_1, Product of Min Zheng Xing, owner. This mark was used by Mr. Min Zheng Xing (name) in his porcelain shop in Nanchang, Jiangxi province. At this time the Wa Lee Factory was still in Nanchang. In 1947 the Wa Lee Factory moved to Canton “near the end of the Yi De Road” and in 1949 moved on to Hong Kong. Meanwhile Min Zheng Xing remained in Jiangxi. Around 1951 to 1952 Min Zheng Xing “who also was an accomplished porcelain painter” travelled to HK once, trying to sell his Nanchang factory porcelains. Mr. Kung “treated him and took him around, but with little success since the times were difficult in HK too”. (Source: Simon Ng interview w Mr Kung, HK 2001, from the Gotheborg.com Marks list)

Jiangxi Min Zheng Xing Chu Pin_2  Jiangxi Min Zheng Xing Chu Pin _2, Product of Min Zheng Xing, owner, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_47 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_47, Generic mark for a large range of utilitarian as well as more refined porcelains made in Jiangxi province. ‘Ming Ci’ means reputable porcelain

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_48 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_48, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_49 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_49, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_50 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_50, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_51 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_51, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_52 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_52, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_53 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_53, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_55 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_55, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_56 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_56, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_57 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_57, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_58 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_58, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_59 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_59, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_60 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_60, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_61 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_61, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_62 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_62, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_63 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_63, see above Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_63iThis example also has a company name – Jiangxi Yong ? Chu Pin

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_68 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_68, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_69 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_69, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_71 Jiangxi Ming Ci_1_71, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_10_19 Jiangxi Ming Ci _10_19,  See bove,  Jiangxi Ming Ci_10_19_Jiangxi Lian Xi Zuo_i  The inscription reads ‘Jiangxi Lian Xi  Zuo’, so made by Lian Xi?  Lian Xi is the maker on the example ‘Lian Xi Tao Hui_08_03’ further down this list

Jiangxi Ming Ci_11_18 Jiangxi Ming Ci _11_18, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_14_19 Jiangxi Ming Ci _14_19, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_18_05 Jiangxi Ming Ci _18_05, Generic mark, see above

Jiangxi Ming Ci_14_24 Jiangxi Ming Ci _14_24, See above, Jiangxi Ming Ci_14_24iA different form of the Jiangxi Ming Ci mark. Inscription reads Zhong Guo (China) ? Chu Pin

Jiangxi Ming Ci_2 Jiangxi Ming Ci_2,  See above. A different form of the Jiangxi

Ming Ci mark

Jiangxi Ming Ci Jiu Feng Jian Zhi_20_39  Jiangxi Ming Ci Jiu Feng Jian Zhi_20_39

Jiangxi Ming Ci Yu De Chang Chu Pin_1 Jiangxi Ming Ci Yu De Chang Chu Pin_1, Reputable product of Yu De Chang

Jiangxi Niu Fu Shun Zao_19_09 Jiangxi Niu Fu Shun Zao_19_09

Jiangxi Rao Hua Feng Zao_09_13 Jiangxi Rao Hua Feng Zao_09_13, Company or artist’s name of Rao Hua Feng, although there is a similarly named company with a similar calligrapher, see Jing Zhen Hua Feng Gongsi_03_01

Jiangxi Rong Ji Chu Pin_6_01 Jiangxi Rong Ji Chu Pin_6_01,