JIANGXI PORCELAIN COMPANY(江西瓷业公司) – Part 1 – The Early Years (一开始)

1. Introduction

It is often said the Jiangxi Porcelain Company of the early 20th century replaced the Imperial kilns, making porcelains for the court in the last years of the Qing Dynasty. Certainly, the company used the kilns on Zhushan (referred to as Pearl Mountain by westerners at the time) which had previously housed the Imperial Kilns. But what was really the case?

It is also often reported that the Jiangxi Porcelain Company was set up in 1910, but the story of its beginnings is much more complicated. Years ago, it was claimed that the Jiangxi Porcelain closed in 1934, then it was said to be 1949. What really happened?

The Jiangxi Porcelain Company (JPC) or Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi is the most well-known Chinese porcelain company of the first half of the 20th century. It is also one of the most prolific, most globally disseminated and, for the last 15 years or so, replicated. Knowledge about the origins of the company from bureaucratic archival sources has been written up by a few westerners and, more recently and more comprehensively, on Chinese museum and other websites. The Chinese websites are now translatable and understandable in English as software has improved. In addition, results of archaeological excavations carried out around 2003 on Zhushan in Jingdezhen are now available to the ‘public’ and have further elucidated or confirmed dates and chronologies regarding the company and its products.

In addition, some individuals have concentrated their collections on products from Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi and one such collection has been published, providing a large number of authentic examples:

  • Late Qing Dynasty porcelain: Jiangxi Porcelain Company  2012 ISBN 978-7-5480-1549-9 233pp by Lai Dayi,  Jiangxi Fine Arts Publishing House

This report will summarise this data and will also look at some of the earlier porcelains from this company, to show their links with dynastic wares and then (in later reports) to show how they moved away from those ‘old’ patterns and constraints into more innovative, experimental and daring works.

However, when looking at all the Jiangsi Ciye Gongsi porcelains over its 50 year existence, especially after these ‘early years’, the most remarkable observation about JPC porcelains is their diversity of pattern and shape,  and their ubiquity, and in some instances even their surprising ordinariness.

THIS REPORT CAN BE ‘READ’ IN TWO WAYS –  Either SCROLL THROUGH THE IMAGES of the marks and examples, reading the captions to get a general idea of what is what.  Or, I’m sure that if you own a piece of ‘Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi’ porcelain or would like to, you will gain a lot from reading right through, even if just in sections.




  1. Introduction (above)
  2. Base marks on Jiangxi Porcelain Company (Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 江西瓷业公司) examples
  3. Origins of the Jiangxi Porcelain Company (Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 江西瓷业公司)

              3a.          Before 1902

              3b.          1902/03 – 1908

              3c.          1908 – 1910/1911

              3d.          After 1910, Introduction only

  1. Jiangxi Porcelain Company – Examples from the Early Years, 1908- c.1911




2. Basemarks on Jiangxi Porcelain Company pieces 

There are a great many base marks on Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi porcelains, reflecting a dating and quality hierarchy, and also a shape and decoration type.

Some, if authentic, indicate an early dating – these are the handwritten underglaze blue in 2 columns (like a reign mark) or in 2 rows but with double underglaze blue circles – see 2a. below

Others indicate a later dating, towards the end of the Republic Period – these are the stamped overglaze blue marks – see 2g. below

Yet others, by themselves, do not appear to have a clear date range – underglaze blue without double circles, red handwritten, and red stamped.

Below is a list of all the ‘Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi’ mark types that I have been able to find. There may well be more to add in the future. Of course, these are broad types and do not take into consideration all the different forms of calligraphy or stamps. You will see all the different actual marks in the examples shown at the end of this part of the report, and at the end of all the other parts as well.

It should be noted that the most common mark is an underglaze blue with no double circle, followed very closely by the overglaze red stamped marks, (handwritten ones are a bit less common). A few of the marks are very rare, with only one or two examples found so far.

This first ‘early years’ part of this report will concentrate on examples with the first two marks below…….

2a. Underglaze Blue marks, all handwritten

  • 2a.1 -Two columns, (6 characters, first three in right column ‘Jiang Xi Ci’, then last three in left column ‘Ye Gong Si’),  much like how a reign mark is written. These marks are rare.

318_5a       318_5b

  • 2a.2 -Three columns, (same 6 characters, right column ‘Jiang Xi’, middle column ‘Ci Ye’, left column ‘Gong Si’), much like how all 6 character company marks are written in the Republic Period. In addition, double underglaze blue circles surround the mark. Uncommon mark.

589aMR   589bMR

  • 2a.3 – As above, but no double circle surround. Three columns, (same 6 characters, right column ‘Jiang Xi’, middle column ‘Ci Ye’, left column ‘Gong Si’), much like how all 6 character company marks are written in the Republic Period. Common mark, usually on good quality examples, distinctive forms of calligraphy on most pieces.

1011MR      1035MR

  • 2a.4 -Ten character mark, two columns, ‘Zhong Hua Ming Guo Jiang’ in right column, ‘Xi Ci Ye Gong Si’ in left column. From Jiangxi Porcelain Company book, p64, see bibliography. Only these two examples are known so far.

JPC_DBC_10_3     Artron 51_6

  • 2a.5 – This must be a ‘one of a kind’ – on a teabowl set or gaiwan, with ‘Jiang Xi Ci Ye’ on the base of the bowl , and ‘Gong Si’ in the top recess of the cover, p 209 JPC book


2b. Overglaze red marks, Handwritten

  • 2b.1 – Two columns, (6 characters, first three in right column ‘Jiang Xi Ci’, then last three in left column ‘Ye Gong Si’),  much like how a reign mark is written. Rare mark, only a couple seen.

0025a_1    0025b_1

  • 2b.2 – Three columns, (same 6 characters, right column ‘Jiang Xi’, middle column ‘Ci Ye’, left column ‘Gong Si’), much like how all 6 character company marks are written in the Republic Period. Surprisingly uncommon mark.

254_6a    254_6b

  • 2b.3 – Two rows, top row ‘Jiang Xi’ (characters left to right), bottom row ‘Ci Ye Gong Si’ (characters left to right). Very rare mark, dated to the 1930s but possibly mark added later ……


2c. Overglaze red marks, Stamped 

  • 2c.1 – Three columns, (same 6 characters, right column ‘Jiang Xi’, middle column ‘Ci Ye’, left column ‘Gong Si’), much like how all 6 character company marks are written in the Republic Period. Common mark.

838_1    940_6

  • 2c.2 – Two columns ‘Jiang Xi Ci’ in right, ‘Yi Gong Si’ in left, within a double square , very rare, just these two so far.

Artron 40_1    JPCB_55m

  • 2c.3 – Oval Outline ‘Changsha Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi ??? ‘ – only this one example, on a piece with a carved pattern of Guangxu dating.

Artron 16_3

  • 2c.4 – Diamond outline ‘Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Chu Pin’, rare, just this one so far.

Artron 10_4

  • 2c.5 – Stamped circle mark ‘Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi Chu Pin’ in 3 sections, quite common on carmine enamelled, dragon graviata pieces, almost as if the factory/manufacturer was just making this pattern.

265_3  Late 1940s/early 1950s mark

  • 2c.6 – Stamped circle mark ‘Jiangxi Jingdezhen Ciye Gongsi’, very rare, just this one, but could be much more common within China.

788_1  Post 1949 mark

2d. Overglaze Blue, teal blue, handwritten – this marks occurs quite rarely, mainly on pieces showing a ‘dynastic’ or old style pattern, i.e. early in C20th

136_2    184_4

2e. Overglaze Blue, bright blue, handwritten – not a very common mark

387_2    489_4


2f. Overglaze blue, teal, Stamped   – Rare mark


2g. Overglaze Blue, bright blue, Stampedvery common mark, especially on 1940s- earliest 1950s pieces – the mark quality is often extremely poor

722_1    592_2

628_6    632_6

2h. Black, handwritten, within inscription, no basemark


3.Origins of the Jiangxi Porcelain Company (Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi 西公司)

3a.      Before 1902

The idea of a Jingdezhen or Jiangxi Porcelain Company had been around since the turn of the century. The idea of a porcelain manufacturer which would be technologically innovative and bring Jingdezhen porcelain back into viable competition with its more successful foreign porcelain producers had been around for even longer, back into the late 19th century. Jingdezhen was still recovering in part from the destruction of the Imperial kilns during the 1860s (Tongzhi) period but also it had suffered from:-

  • the general lack of interest and infrastructure in the last decades of the Qing Dynasty;
  • from flood damage (the Chang River flows right through the town and often destroyed markets and kilns);
  • from a series of rebellions throughout Jiangxi;
  • and, from the introduction of the ‘Likin’ tax on porcelain. The ‘Likin’ tax was originally introduced during the 1850s to provide the government with monies for their military operations in order to put down the rebellions. It was consumption based and was calculated at customs barriers such as the trading town of Jiujiang. It also increased over time such that it became a significant disincentive: for instance, trade from Jingdezhen to Canton dropped almost 50% from 1903 to 1904, as the traders went out of business . Foreign competitors were not taxed nearly so harshly (Michael Dillon PhD thesis 1976). Something needed to be done. 

3b.      1902/03 – 1908

In 1902 the Governor of Jiangxi, Ke Fengshi, proposed to the Qing Court that a porcelain company be set up in Jingdezhen to produce fine porcelain to compete with foreign imports. Porcelain from Europe and Japan was eroding Jingdezhen global exports and even outdoing Jingdezhen manufacture and sales within China. Jingdezhen still had the best clays and labour costs but the foreign competitors had better kiln technology and distribution networks & costs. The proposed name was Jingdezhen Porcelain Company. Ke Fengshi outlined what funds would be required and how the company would work. In the end, a small sum of 50,000 yuan was apparently given but this was not sufficient to get the company into production. Several further attempts were made over the next few years, kilns and labour found in Jingdezhen, but finances could not be secured to make an ongoing enterprise.

3c.      1908 – 1910/1911

In 1907/1908 Li Jiade and Zeng Zhu also suggested to the government that ‘Jingdezhen Porcelain Company’ should be changed to ‘Jiangxi Porcelain Company’ and a joint government/private business model was put forward.  This was approved and Sun Tinglin of Hubei was put in charge to re-establish the kilns on the north side of Zhushan. This first attempt used the old production methods and there was little difference between the pattern ornamentation and the Guangxu Guanyao, i.e patterns from previous centuries, except that the basemarks were different. However, a continuing lack of funds still hindered its progress. Nonetheless, it would appear that some porcelains were made. Although there is no paper trail or extant governmental evidence in the records, archaeological excavations carried out in 2002/2003 have provided some clues.

Archaeological Excavations and evidence

In 2002/2003 the Jingdezhen Ceramic Archaeological Institute and other associated government bodies did some excavations around the kilns on the northern side of Zhushan. Essentially the results prove that Jiangxi Porcelain Company production of porcelains occurred as early as the 34th year of Guangxu or 1908. There is, as yet, no definitive proof of Jiangxi Porcelain Company porcelain production before that time.

I quote from this report – Thoughts Aroused by Ke Fengshi’s “Development of Jiangxi Porcelain Company”  –  Analysis of Several Problems of Jiangxi Porcelain Company

2012-04-16   Xiang Kunpeng   “National Museum of China”, No. 4, 2012


”….. it can be seen that from the 29th year of Guangxu(1903), Jiangxi Ceramic Co., Ltd. had a lot of twists and turns since its preparation, but by the time of Guangxu thirty-four years, during this period, Jiangxi porcelain company had have production” …” If the occurrence of production behavior is used as a standard, it can be said that Guangxu’s Jiangxi porcelain company was established before the 34th year of Guangxu (between 29 and 34 years of Guangxu).”  – i.e between 1903 and 1908.

The author goes on to say that the paper evidence for this has not yet been established for these claims, only the actual porcelains on Zhushan.

 3d.      After 1910

In 1910 another attempt was more comprehensive and long lasting. Three businessmen, Zhang Jizhi, Yuan Qiuji and Rui Junhua, in collaboration with five provinces, Fujian, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu and Jiangxi, established the ‘Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi’ that we know of today.

After 1910, with the official, integrated and substantial establishment of the Jiangxi Porcelain Company, ‘new’ patterns, new technologies, new production plants at both Poyang (Raozhou) and Jingdezhen, and the establishment of teaching schools at Poyang (Raozhou), the innovative side of Jiangxi Porcelain Company could finally emerge. The dynastic porcelain prototypes were quite quickly thrown off and the hiring of master painters such as those from the Eight Friends of Zhushan led to the flourishing of experimental and ‘modern’ patterns and techniques.  This period will be the subject of a forthcoming part of this report, stay tuned.

4.Jiangxi Porcelain Company – Some examples from the Early Years, 1908-1911

So, the question is, what was produced in these early years of the Jiangxi Porcelain Company? Was anything made in the period 1902-1908? If so, what and does any still exist? What was made in the first real known production of the JPC in the years 1908-1910? What does it look like?

Did the Jiangxi Porcelain Company make the porcelain for the Imperial Court in the last year of the Guangxu reign and the during the Xuantong reign until the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1911?

Author Xiang Kunpeng, in the link above also addresses the relationship between the Jiangxi Porcelain Company and Qing court porcelain:

“During the thirty-three years from Guangxu to Xuantong, at least for a while, the imperial kiln factory was included in Jiangxi Porcelain Company, which means that at least part of the porcelain that the court entered during this period was Jiangxi Porcelain Company produced.”

“Jiangxi Porcelain Company exercised the functions of the Royal Kiln Factory for a period of time…”

The author concludes that the Jiangxi Porcelain Company functioned as the Royal Kiln from at least 1908 to the end of 1911, that is, until the end of the Xuantong emperor’s reign.

We do know that the early patterns were made using old systems of production and followed the taste of previous reigns. What about the basemarks? This is where a study of the actual porcelains themselves come into their own. I have been tracking Jiangxi Porcelain Company marks for about 20 years now and have a good set of images at hand. In addition, many Chinese writers have outlined the range of marks on Jiangxi Porcelain Company wares in books and on websites, and it is time to look at these now.

So, can we say that pieces with a particular mark are from the 1908-1911 period? Not with absolute certainty, but with a quiet assuredness we can say that examples with underglaze blue marks  2a.1 and2a.2 are from this period and/or in the first year or two afterwards. At this stage this is a working theory. Also, when I publish the second part of this report, it will show some of the same patterns seen below, but with underglaze blue marks without circles. So, the relationships are not clear cut, nor exclusive. There is still much we just do not know.

It would appear, by piecing together some of the reports and looking at some of the early porcelains themselves, that between 1908 and 1911 when the Jiangxi Porcelain Company acted as the ‘Imperial’ kiln, dynastic porcelain which correlated well with porcelain of the preceding decades, was made by the Jiangxi Porcelain Company and mainly held marks in underglaze blue and white with double circles. These ‘old’ patterns – dragon and phoenix, flowers, bird in branches, leaves & berries – were painted in underglaze blue and white alone or in conjunction with polychrome enamels, and were the same or similar to examples with the same patterns but which hold different, dynastic marks:- underglaze blue or red handpainted Guangxu 6 kaishu marks or underglaze blue handpainted Kangxi 4 or 6 kaishu marks (these latter being examples of Kangxi revival wares). These pieces are so similar and give a good indication that all (with Jiangxi Porcelain Company  marks, Guangxu M&P and Kangxi marks) were made at the same manufacturers and kilns. Official imperial ‘kilndom’ ended in 1911– from 1907/1908 until that date, large numbers of porcelains were delivered to the Beijing imperial court.

In this section examples of Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi porcelains are shown with underglaze blue marks within double blue circles and underglaze blue marks written in 2 columns, like a reign mark – i.e.2a.1 and 2a.2 marks above.

4a. Underglaze blue marks with double circles

Most of these examples are underglaze blue (and underglaze red highlights) & white only, with several distinct patterns and then a range of miscellaneous leaf flower and/or insect patterns.

Then there are examples with some enamel additions (Dragon & Phoenix; Bats & Cloud).

A couple of very rare monochromes are next.

Finally, there are examples with enamels only (but with underglaze blue & white base marks).

These double circle marks are rare, despite the fact that appear to be a lot here – many of the examples below come from books, many from Chinese websites before 2009, only about a dozen have come from western auction houses. And I have been collecting these images for almost 20 years now!

Also, the patterns are very similar to many Guangxu M&P and Kangxi Revival pieces, especially the blue and white wares. The innovative period of Jiangxi Porcelain Company production is yet to come. These pieces can be considered as remnants from the previous decades. The only exceptions may be some of  the enamelled examples at the end.

You will notice that there are at least three base mark calligraphers, one has more ‘flourish’, the others more regimented. The latter ones always give me feeling that calligrapher was left handed, although I am not sure how this idea relates in terms of Chinese calligraphy?

Only two examples are dated, one for 1910 and one for 1913. The latter is of a very unique shape and the pattern is an exception to the more conventional patterns seen in these ‘double circle’ pieces – perhaps an exception to the rule/theory.

The first pattern is of silkworms and mulberry leaves:

1_Artron JPC 14_42_Artron JPC 63_53_Artron JPC 16_14_Artron JPC 32_25_Artron JPC 32_36_Artron JPC 40_27_Artron JPC 48_18_Artron JPC 50_29_JPCB_DBC_310_JPCB_DBC_28

A pair of confronting tigers in a landscape, with and without inscription:

11_Artron JPC 7_312_JPCB_DBC_20

Grapes, leaves and tendrils (grapes in underglaze red):

13_Artron JPC 6_114_Artron JPC 18_615_Artron JPC 28_516_Artron JPC 30_217_Artron JPC 33_418_Artron JPC 34_219_BR1282_520_BR1334_421_JPCB_DBC_8



Dragons, flames and pearl:

23_Artron JPC 22_324_Artron JPC 24_125_JPCB_DBC_526_BR1455_2

Foliage, flowers and berries (latter in underglaze red):

27_Artron JPC 8_128_BR0703_329_Artron JPC 60_1

Foliage, insects and birds:

30_Artron JPC 19_731_Artron JPC 11_132_Artron JPC 46_5

Ducks or geese and grasses:

33_BR0712_734_Artron JPC 44_4

Beaked bird and spikey leaved plant:

35_Artron JPC 18_136_Artron JPC 40_337_Artron JPC 47_438_JPCB_DBC_439_JPCB_DBC_15

Lids with a range of patterns:

40_Artron JPC 24_2

Lotus and Bao Xiang Hua scroll:

41_Artron JPC 51_2

Foliage and vegetables, including bok choy, with inscription:

42_Artron JPC 6_3

Foliage and bird with inscription:

43_Artron JPC 51_4

Rare Figural scene in a garden:


Bird, rock and peony branch:

45_Artron JPC 7_546_JPCB_DBC_2

Chrysanthemum flowers and foliage – this example (marks shown below) can be seen at the following Victoria & Albert Museum link (note that example is a probable mismatch – Guangxu marked lid, JPC marked bowl):



Chrysanthemums, leaves and bird on rock (short inscription):


Three friends of winter – pine tree, prunus branch and bamboo:


Flower Sprigs:

50_Artron JPC 47_3

Flowers and leaves (unidentified):

51_Artron JPC 52_552_JPCB_DBC_24

I-Ching and inscription pattern, scalloped and barbed edge:

53_Artron JPC 52_4

Decorative symmetrical scroll with coloured enamel highlights:


Wheel and inscription:


Stylised cloud pattern, with and without iron red bats (and one example with a dragon):

58_BR0261_359_Artron JPC 4_660_Artron JPC 52_261_Artron JPC 17_162_Artron JPC 19_863_Artron JPC 22_564_Artron JPC 28_165_Artron JPC 50_4

Underglaze blue line borders with enamel flowers:


Rice Pattern with enamel highlights, a diaper border, and a dragon and phoenix chasing a pearl:


Flower sprigs in enamel:


Pomegranates, narcissi and vegetables:


Very unusual western export style pattern with barbed edge:

75_Artron JPC 17_3

Basket of flowers pattern in leaf shaped cartouche, elaborate border, enamels:


Another basket of flowers with bi-colour border (C19th pattern):


Flowers, leaves and nandina in enamels:


Pine Tree and peony with crane pair on a rock, with inscription and dating to 1913 (Is this one spurious?):


Flowers or fruits in enamel:


Dated 1910 (above)

Flowers and leaves en grisaille, with enamel daisies and inscription:

86_Artron JPC 11_587_Artron JPC 37_5

Monochrome plate in pale blue with barbed edge:


4b. Underglaze blue marks in 2 columns

90_Artron JPC 17_691_Artron JPC 1_192_Artron JPC 26_493_JPCB_DBC_1994_Artron JPC 37_495_Artron JPC 59_696_Artron JPC 60_597_JPCB_DBC_998_Artron JPC 19_699_Artron JPC 43_4

(above) Ren Xu date of 1922, this interesting bell shaped weight is in a category of its own

100_Artron JPC 35_1101_Artron JPC 54_3101a_BR0025_1102_BR0318_5103_JPCB_DBC_10

(above) Finally, this example has its own category, very unique ‘Zhong Hua Ming Guo Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi’ mark.

In the next installment of this report (Parts 2,3 & 4), the true character of Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi products will be shown. The examples and history of the company from 1910 until 1949 will be comprehensively covered. The porcelains of this 1910-1949 period show huge variation and reflect the blossoming and the eventual decline of this most interesting company.

Now to start on Parts 2, 3 & 4…….

Best wishes, Michaela


A: General Bibliography 

A1. Late Qing Dynasty porcelain: Jiangxi Porcelain Company  2012 ISBN 978-7-5480-1549-9 233pp by Lai Dayi,  Jiangxi Fine Arts Publishing House

A2. A History of the Porcelain Industry in Jingdezhen  1976 Michael Dillon  PhD Thesis  Department of Chinese Studies, University of Leeds, September 1976

A3. Chinese Porcelain of the Republic Period 2008  ISBN 978-988-98818-9-4  Simon Kwan, Muwen Tang Fine Arts Publication Ltd

B: Website Bibliography

 B1. Bibliography from the website report –  Reflections on Ke Fengshi’s “Distribution of Jiangxi Ceramics Co., Ltd.” – Analysis of Several Issues of Jiangxi Porcelain Company 2012-04-16   Xiang Kunpeng    China National Museum of Art, Issue 4, 2012


  1. China’s No. 1 Historical Archives, ed., “The Criticism of Zhu Guangxu in the Guangxu Period”, Volume 101, pp. 561-563, Zhonghua Book Company, 1996.
  2. Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty Official Kiln Ruins in the North of Zhushan, Jingdezhen, edited by the National Bureau of Cultural Relics, “China’s Important Archaeological Discoveries in 2003”, Cultural Relics Publishing House, 2004, p. 160.
  3. Liu Jinzao: “The Qing Dynasty Continuing Documentary Exam” volume 383, “Industry VI. Public Works”, exam 11306.
  4. “The Complete Works of Qing Dynasty Porcelain Files”, “File Summary 2”, China Pictorial Publishing House, 2008, No. 857 page.
  5. Liu Jinzao: “The Qing Dynasty continued literature review” volume 366 “Industrial Nine. Kiln industry. New style kiln industry”, test 11833.
  6. Porcelain Stone: “China’s First Ceramic Industrial Company – Jiangxi Jingdezhen Company”, “Jingdezhen Ceramics” No. 3, 1984.
  7. Jiangxi Institute of Ceramics, Ministry of Light Industry, eds. Jingdezhen Ceramic History, Sanlian Bookstore, 1959, pp. 270-271.
  8. Xiang Xuan: “Jingdezhen Ceramic Industry Chronicle” Chapter 13 “The Status of Jiangxi Ceramic Company’s Business”, Jingdezhen Kaizhi Printing Bureau, photocopy, 1920.
  9. Wu Renjing, Xin Anchao: “The History of Chinese Ceramics,” Chapter Twelve, “The Qing Times,” Commercial Press, 1998, p. 108.
  10. “The Complete Works of Qing Dynasty Porcelain Files”, “File Summary 2”, China Pictorial Publishing House, 2008, pp. 870-879.
  11. Wang Guangzhen, “Establishment and Termination of Qing Dynasty Imperial Kiln Factory”, “Chinese Ancient Guan Kiln System”, Forbidden City Press, 2004, p. 172.

B2.  Republic Jiangxi Porcelain Company Knowledge – Art Investment (Collection, auction, appraisal) – Everyone Forum  2011 (17/03) Liyang


Outlines the early history of the JPC and its relationship of the Eight Friends of Zhushan and associates.

B3.  Development of Modern Ceramics of Jiangxi Porcelain Company and Jingdezhen – Xin Zhihua  2008










Best 10 books for the Chinese Republic period (1912-1949)

I was actually surprised whilst compiling this list to find that there are only four English language books written within the last 50 years on porcelains of the Republic Period (at least to my knowledge – I’d love to be corrected). They are all listed below. Whilst they cover a large proportion of examples from this period there are some obvious omissions: porcelains with private company marks; a comprehensive outline of patterns unique or peculiar to the era; an outline of inscriptions on Republic period porcelains for Westerners; and for my tastes at least, information on what the Chinese call ‘daily use’ porcelains – utilitarian wares. These latter constitute their own sub-section and no one has looked them systematically, even though they will form the bulk of collectable examples from this era in the future. This list does not include the large number of books, all Chinese, which deal with Qianjiang porcelains and which therefore often include information on Literati (Eight Friends of Zhushan etc) porcelains and span the two centuries – I’ll leave that list for someone else.

1 .Chinese Porcelain of the Republic Period 2008 ISBN 978-988-98818-9-4  Simon Kwan, Muwen Tang Fine Arts Publication Ltd. (Its predecessor, Brush & Clay, same author is almost exactly the same but out of print)


Excellent pictures of high-end plaques and porcelains collected by the Kwan family since the 1960s, including a series of chapters on the painters and their lives, the problems with ‘Hongxian’ pieces, some marks of the period, and Qianjiang and Literati porcelains. This book is in English as well as Chinese, which is, with the explanatory chapters, why it tops the list.

2. The Complete Collection of Porcelain of Jiangxi Province Morning Glory Publishers –           Porcelain from the year 1912-1949 (I) 2008  ed. Tie Yuan (Company and Artist signed) ISBN 978-7-5054-1744-1


–           Porcelain from the year 1912-1949 (II) 2008 ed. Tie Yuan (reign marked copies) ISBN 978-7-5054-1745-8


These two volumes have pictures of porcelains from provincial museums throughout Jiangxi, including the Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum and the Jiangxi Provincial Museum in Jingdezhen. The text is in Chinese but the picture captions are in English, so it is completely understandable. The books have a more representative range of pieces from this period, and for that reason I find it very interesting. The first volume includes all pieces from private companies, individual artists, and schools. The second volume includes those reign marked pieces contemporary to the period, i.e. Hongxian and Jurentang, and also the large number of examples which have earlier reign marks from the Ming and Qing dynasties, but are of Republic period age. This highlights the fact that the Chinese see this type of Republic period reign marked ware as a classification in itself.

3. Innovations and Creations, A Retrospect of 20th Century Porcelain from Jingdezhen 2004  ISBN 962-7101-69-9  Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum and Art Museum & The Chinese University of Hong Kong


Another book with many images, in Chinese and English, text as well as captions. An excellent range of examples, not just from the Republic period but also from the People’s Republic, items not seen in other books.

4. The Great Fortune, Chinese & Japanese Porcelain of the 19th and 20th centuries & their forerunners, from the Weishaupt Collection 2002 ISBN 3-00-010306-6     George Weishaupt

Front_Great Fortune

This book is packed full of information and pictures, in English and German. The detailed captions, translating inscriptions and marks, as well as the essays on a range of interesting subjects (Dayazhai. Monochromes, Motifs etc) make it endlessly interesting. One comes back to it regularly to discover more. Covers more than just Republic era porcelains.

5a. The Republic of China, Porcelain on Inspection Vol I: Pattern, Inscription and Bibliotic (MINGUO CIQI JIANDING: WENSHI KUANSHI BIANWEI) 2004 ISBN 7-80178-136-8, by Tie Yuan and Xi Ming

Front POI Vol I_LR

This book, and its counterpart below, are in Chinese only, unfortunately. However, it is packed full of information and would love to have it translated. It lists entrepreneurs, educators, painters, makers, outlines patterns under headings such as figural, landscape, animal, flower and bird, four seasons flowers, inscriptions, all with masses of images from the museums of Jiangxi (some of which are in other Chinese books above). It also has chapters on dated porcelains, hallmarks, company marks and imitations, plus a range of appendices which look very interesting.

5b. The Republic of China, Porcelain on Inspection Vol II: Paste, Glaze, Paint and Shapes (MINGUO CIQI JIANDING: TAIYOU CAIHUI QIXING) 2004 ISBN 7-80178-137-6, by Tie Yuan and Xi Ming

Front POI Vol II

This is the sister book to the one above – Chinese text only, but also packed with information – yet to be translated.

6. Century Retrospect, Zeng’s Collection of Jingdezhen Porcelain during 20th Century 2003 ISBN 7-80178-089-2 eds. Zeng Meifang & Zeng Chengyu Hua Ling Press

Front Zengs_LR

This book shows the personal collection of Zeng Meifang, a gentleman from Nanchang, Jiangxi. All classes of porcelains from the Republic period and later are covered, with examples not seen elsewhere, which is why this book is so interesting. One introductory chapter and the captions are in English, the rest in Chinese. Hard to get.

7. From the Dragon’s Treasure, Chinese Porcelain from the 19th & 20th Century 1987 ISBN 1-870076-05-2 Gunhilde Avitabile Bamboo Publishing

Front_from Dragons Treasure

This little treasure now seems rather dated, but it is still excellent for showing Hongxian, Jurentang and Qianlong marked pieces which are at least guaranteed to be from the Republic period. Also shows Jiaqing to Xuantong examples. All pieces are from the Weishaupt Collection.

8. Dating Chinese Porcelain from Facial Features and Adornments: A Handbook 2013 ISBN 978-91-637-3337-6 by Tommy Eklof


Of course, Tommy’s handbook is essential for dating and other purposes and we all should have a copy! The Republic period is extremely well covered, not least because so many examples from this era are dated in their inscriptions and therefore provide excellent quality control.

9. Canon of Colored Ceramic painting of Famous Artists in Modern China 2005 ISBN 7-80730-031-0


This is an interesting book, which looks at late C19th and Republic era examples of mixed quality. Listed according to porcelain shape and age, the book is packed full of images which show the pieces, the artists, the inscriptions, and other details. Text in Chinese, captions in English as well. Hard to get.

10. Late Qing Dynasty porcelain: Jiangxi Porcelain Company  2012 ISBN 978-7-5480-1549-9 233pp by Lai Dayi,  Jiangxi Fine Arts Publishing House

no pic sorry

This book contains one man’s collection of Jiangxi Porcelain Company pieces, loads of photos and marks, introduction and preface in English, rest is Chinese. Fascinating.

For the desperate, here are a few other recommended books on the era:

  • Republic of China Porcelain 2010 ISBN 978-7-200-08365-1 188pp by 北京艺术博物馆, published by 北京出版社
  • A Discourse on Hung Hsien Porcelain 1987 ISBN 9-781588-860187 64pp by Mark Chou

This list was written in about 2013/14 so there would be more out there now, but none in English as far as I am aware.


Best wishes, Michaela

Chinese porcelain LIDDED SERVING BOWLS – a 20th Century shape

This is another very satisfying shape. They were produced mainly throughout the Republic Period (1912-1949) and come in 3 main sizes – approximately 15.5cm/6”; 19.5cm/7 ½”; 26cm/10”. The smaller size is most common and the very largest size is most rare. A few may have been produced in the last years of the Qing dynasty, and a few were produced during the first part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC 1949-present).

Many were produced to order by private companies, usually as part of a larger dinner service. In general but not exclusively the patterns which are derived from the Qing period show reign marks, new patterns developed from the Qianjiang and Literati movements/palettes show company marks.

Some of them have inscriptions which provide information regarding their makers, dating, and commendations as a gift.

The following images (nearly 200 I’m afraid!) will show, in no particular order, the range of patterns and marks to be found on these lidded serving bowls. As a whole they give a good representation of the ‘daily use’ porcelain of the Republic Period – in fact there are images of Chiang Kai Shek and Madame Chiang Kai Shek eating from these wares! – shown at the end. I will note where possible if an example has a date, but otherwise this is just a visual report to feast the eyes and elucidate the considerable variation in enamelling and painting during this period.

BR0369_5 (800x240) (800x240)BR0104_5 (800x239) (800x239)BR0389_5 (800x222) (800x222)BR0848_2 (800x207) (800x207)BR0176_7 (800x202) (800x202)BR0063_3 (800x233) (800x233)BR0454_1 (800x192) (800x192)BR0321_3 (800x204) (800x204)BR0239_3 (800x198) (800x198)BR0728_5 (800x187) (800x187)

BR0596_3 (800x166) (800x166)

Dated 1937

BR_MR148_0976 (800x192) (800x192)

PRC, early

BR0300_1 (800x200) (800x200)BR0524_1 (800x181) (800x181)BR0356_5 (800x165) (800x165)BR0637_2 (800x177) (800x177)BR_MR37_0269 (800x188) (800x188)BR0822_9 (800x194) (800x194)BR0410_6 (800x183) (800x183)

BR0521_7 (800x186) (800x186)

Dated 1924

BR0282_9 (800x165) (800x165)

PRC, early

BR0768_5 (800x195) (800x195)BR0710_1 (800x187) (800x187)BR0461_5 (800x189) (800x189)BR0856_3 (800x212) (800x212)DP_1zm (800x189) (800x189)BR0708a_3 (800x192) (800x192)BR0674_5 (800x187) (800x187)BR0168_4 (800x172) (800x172)BR0759_2 (800x184) (800x184)

BR0786_5 (800x167) (800x167)

Dated 1936

BR0041_4 (800x160) (800x160)BR0784_5 (800x203) (800x203)BR_MR166_1087 (800x186) (800x186)BR_MR100_0646 (800x189) (800x189)

BR0702_1 (800x182) (800x182)

Dated 1931

BR0189_3 (800x169) (800x169)BR_MR106_0679 (800x194) (800x194)BR0719_7 (800x189) (800x189)BR0502_2 (800x175) (800x175)BR0203_1 (800x160) (800x160)BR0220_3 (800x186) (800x186)BR0621_6 (800x266) (800x266)BR0361_4 (800x172) (800x172)BR0620_4 (800x194) (800x194)

BR0706_6 (800x202) (800x202)

Dated 1934

BR0182_2 (800x183) (800x183)BR0756_2 (800x181) (800x181)BR0527_3 (800x190) (800x190)BR0550_5 (800x185) (800x185)BR0705_5 (800x199) (800x199)BR0708_5 (800x180) (800x180)BR0592_5 (800x214) (800x214)BR0655_3 (800x210) (800x210)BR0515_3 (800x190) (800x190)BR0738_1 (800x189) (800x189)BR0715_2 (800x200) (800x200)BR_MR58_0387 (800x194) (800x194)BR0721_5 (800x186) (800x186)

BR0588_7 (800x147) (800x147)

Dated 1937

BR0598_1 (800x155) (800x155)

Dated 1936

BR0131_2 (800x187) (800x187)BR0182_1 (800x178) (800x178)BR0699_2 (800x171) (800x171)BR0082_3 (800x182) (800x182)BR0293_5 (800x188) (800x188)BR0583_5 (800x174) (800x174)

BR0711_7 (800x191) (800x191)

Dated 1933

BR_MR100_0641 (800x189) (800x189)BR0481a_2 (800x183) (800x183)BR_MR139_0882 (800x180) (800x180)BR0715_5 (800x188) (800x188)BR0711_4 (800x168) (800x168)

BR0732_4 (800x147) (800x147)

Dated 1938

BR0631_2 (800x192) (800x192)

Dated 1934

BR_MR75_0501 (800x169) (800x169)

BR0721_3 (800x198) (800x198)

Dated 1933

BR0574_3 (800x193) (800x193)

BR0698_6 (800x186) (800x186)

Dated 1931

BR0842_4 (800x169) (800x169)

Dated 1944

DPExBR_012_2 (800x149) (800x149)BR0712_7 (800x189) (800x189)BR0641_1 (800x213) (800x213)BR_MR80_0536 (800x178) (800x178)BR0731_6 (800x184) (800x184)BR0700_2 (800x198) (800x198)BR0709_1 (800x176) (800x176)BR0634_2 (800x184) (800x184)BR0833_4 (800x173) (800x173)BR0877_7 (800x160) (800x160)BR0589_3 (800x203) (800x203)BR0632_6 (800x232) (800x232)DPExBR_033_3 (800x167) (800x167)BR0519_4 (800x175) (800x175)DP_1zr (800x140) (800x140)BR0489_1 (800x184) (800x184)BR_MR102_0659 (800x201) (800x201)

BR0495_1 (800x187) (800x187)

Dated 1936

BR0707_1 (800x170) (800x170)BR0342_1 (800x160) (800x160)BR0104_3 (800x217) (800x217)

BR0702_3 (800x191) (800x191)

Dated 1934

BR_MR140_0892 (800x187) (800x187)BR0438_5 (800x205) (800x205)BR0279_4 (800x150) (800x150)

BR0712_5 (800x195) (800x195)

Dated 1933

BR0640_3 (800x180) (800x180)BR0645_5 (800x213) (800x213)BR0775_4 (800x142) (800x142)BR0375_2 (800x168) (800x168)BR0279_3 (800x146) (800x146)

BR0784_4 (800x164) (800x164)

Dated 1937

BR0534_6 (800x194) (800x194)BR0802_7 (800x159) (800x159)BR0632_1 (800x154) (800x154)

BR0703_2 (800x167) (800x167)

Dated 1953, PRC

BR0706_4 (800x162) (800x162)BR0178_4 (800x183) (800x183)BR0838_3 (800x142) (800x142)BR0712_1 (800x178) (800x178)BR0701_1 (800x180) (800x180)

BR0844_1 (800x189) (800x189)

Dated 1926 or 1937

BR0700_6 (800x178) (800x178)

BR0833_7 (800x156) (800x156)

Dated 1934

BR0713_6 (800x192) (800x192)BR0858_3 (800x128) (800x128)

BR0720_1 (800x178) (800x178)

Dated 1944

BR0587_2 (800x183) (800x183)BR0732_6 (800x142) (800x142)BR0159_4 (800x178) (800x178)

BR0273_1 (800x182) (800x182)

Dated 1931

BR0702_6 (800x179) (800x179)BR0705_2 (800x141) (800x141)BR0712_2 (800x177) (800x177)BR0657_1 (800x170) (800x170)BR0732_5 (800x181) (800x181)

BR0641_5 (800x165) (800x165)

Dated 1936

BR0732_3 (800x178) (800x178)BR0586_4 (800x180) (800x180)BR0629_4 (800x188) (800x188)BR0653_1 (800x168) (800x168)BR0622_5 (800x196) (800x196)BR0324_3 (800x181) (800x181)BR0821_1 (800x191) (800x191)

BR0273_2 (800x177) (800x177)

Dated 1931

BR0178_3 (800x180) (800x180)BR0862_1 (800x174) (800x174)BR0260_1 (800x177) (800x177)BR0481_1 (800x166) (800x166)BR0661_1 (800x187) (800x187)BR0704_2 (800x141) (800x141)BR0774_6 (800x140) (800x140)BR0089_3 (800x141) (800x141)BR0729_3 (800x142) (800x142)BR0844_3 (800x197) (800x197)BR0843_5 (800x200) (800x200)BR0721_2 (800x171) (800x171)BR0843_8 (800x153) (800x153)BR0727_1 (800x165) (800x165)BR0282_1 (800x162) (800x162)

BR0689a_4 (800x126) (800x126)

Dated 1930

BR0705_3 (800x149) (800x149)BR0324_1 (800x180) (800x180)

BR0843_2 (800x184) (800x184)

Dated 1922

BR0772_6 (800x183) (800x183)

BR0783_5 (800x176) (800x176)

Dated 1931

BR0708_6 (800x175) (800x175)

Dated 1921

BR0142_4 (800x166) (800x166)

BR0843_6 (800x141) (800x141)

Dated 1935

BR0324_2 (800x177) (800x177)BR0730_3 (800x141) (800x141)BR0656_2 (800x168) (800x168)

BR0718_3 (800x164) (800x164)

Dated 1932

BR0728_4 (800x159) (800x159)

Dated 1935

BR0707_5 (800x141) (800x141)BR0159_6 (800x178) (800x178)BR0843_3 (800x151) (800x151)

BR0863_1 (800x158) (800x158)

Dated 1922

BR0123_1 (800x143) (800x143)BR0303_3 (800x125) (800x125)BR0633_5 (800x182) (800x182)BR0837_4 (800x162) (800x162)BR0159_5 (800x170) (800x170)

BR0720_3 (800x142) (800x142)

Dated 1932

BR0718_1 (800x186) (800x186)BR0719_6 (800x137) (800x137)BR0497_1 (800x147) (800x147)

BR0622_4 (800x146) (800x146)

Dated 1936

BR0586_5 (800x116) (800x116)BR0662_4 (800x140) (800x140)BR0657_5 (800x140) (800x140)BR0633_6 (800x143) (800x143)BR0596_2 (800x170) (800x170)BR0517_1 (800x140) (800x140)

BR0736_4 (800x136) (800x136)


BR0772_7 (800x151) (800x151)

BR_MR147_0975 (800x185) (800x185)


Chiang Kai Shek Bowls

Chiang Kai Shek and Madame Chiang Kai Shek, eating a meal in their home, photo taken after 1941

Dated 20th Century Chinese Porcelain Compilation: 1900 to 2000

What is this resource?

This is a compilation of dated examples of Chinese porcelain from the years 1900-2000.  Most are authenticated, a very few may be dubious (mainly because I am constantly learning). There are over 1000 examples in this resource, many of which you can see below. However, for copyright reasons, some are held on the Gotheborg Discussion group site – you would have to join up to that site to view those.

The image compilations are shown in chronological order. Most of the dates are from inscriptions on the sides of the items. A very few are dated on the base. See below for more details on the dating.

How to use this resource: 

1. This compilation of dated porcelains may help you to date your porcelains more precisely.

To help you date your piece simply scroll down until you find something similar, in pattern, in enamel colour etc, mark, calligraphy. Try to determine if that particular attribute occurs over a long or short period of time – some patterns last for decades. This will help to pinpoint a date for your piece. However, this really only works if there are multiple examples with the same pattern. One example is NOT enough to give an accurate dating.

For example:  I have a bowl with no date but with a very distinctive pattern and ground colour. Until I put this compilation together I wasn’t sure how old it was, and just labelled it ‘Republic’.


When I scroll down through the compilation below I see similar dated items coming up in 1918:


:in 1923, with a slightly different subject


:in 1924  there are several examples all very similar to my bowl





:in 1925 there are two examples, although one has white ground instead of salmon pink



:in 1926, just one


After that there are no more examples, so the tentative age range of these pieces, until new dated pieces apear, is 1918-1926, with a plethora in 1924. This group gives some idea of the range of shapes that were made with this decoration. My original bowl has a Shanghai base mark, and it apparent from this and other information that many of these types of porcelain, especially with the gilded rims and calligraphy were made for Shanghai companies, either in Jingdezhen or in ‘red’ (low firing enamel) kilns in or around Shanghai itself.

2. This compilation of dated porcelains will show how patterns change through time. It certainly shows the waning influence of Qing patterns during the 1920s/1930s and the uptake of literati influences in the patterns and painting, with a whole new range of striking patterns appearing on dated pieces in the mid Republic period. Note the appearance of coloured grounds with dates which were never seen before the 1920s – all dated pieces before that were either Qianjiang with white ground or their later literati derivatives. By the 1930s some patterns reminiscent of the Qing dynasty start to be produced again.

3. This compilation of dated porcelains will show the emergence of new shapes which can be linked to particular eras or even decades. This is also the case for new patterns or even colour combinations. For example, it becomes apparent when looking at the dated examples after WWII, from 1945 onwards, that the palette of white ground and black borders is very prevalent. Excluding some of the more ornate borders which may have been made pre- war, this particular combination is very distinctive and linked to the 1945-1955 period.


4. This compilation can give some indication of the time range of particular private company base marks. For example the Shanghai company Jian Hua – the first piece is in 1935, then 1940 etc. In fact this company mark crops up in the 1940-1945 period quite regularly, at a time when few porcelain companies were able to produce porcelains because of the Japanese occupation. Perhaps it is possible that the Japanese gave some dispensation to this particular company during that time to continue to produce pieces from their ‘red’ kiln in or around Shanghai?


5. Especially after 1945 there are very few dated pieces from Jingdezhen, most are from Nanchang (to be expanded in another report)…..

6. Despite the fact relatively few porcelains were manufactured during the Japanese Occupation (1937-1945), it is apparent that this did not include porcelain plaques, which seem to be quite prolific at this time. I have yet to determine the reasons, other than logistical, for this.

CAVEAT:  It should be noted that this compilation cannot be comprehensive. I have been gathering these images for some 15 years, but have really only learned the dating translations in the last couple of years. All errors are mine.  There are thousands of dated porcelains throughout the world with a huge repository in China itself, but this is meant to be a pictorial start to educating ourselves from what the porcelains themselves can teach us.

In addition, it is emphasised that within the published examples, there is an inherent bias because the pieces often come from a very particular source – for example, from a collection of just ‘Jiangxi Porcelain Company’ pieces or from a provincial collection which acquired many of its pieces from a State teaching Institute in the 1970s, or from a book which is only about Qianjiang porcelains etc.


There are several methods the Chinese use to show when the porcelain was made:

  1. Cyclical dates in the inscription. See any or all of the following links for an explanation:




  1. Cyclical dates (as above) within the base mark, quite rare.
  2. Dates written with Chinese number characters in the inscription (and more rarely on the base). This can be subdivided into:-        a)  dates within the Republic period: i.e. sometimes the characters for ‘Ming Guo’ (民国) precede the number characters, which means you add an extra 11 years (as the Republic started in 1912) to the numbers to get the actual datee. Ming Guo 1922 = actual year 1933.1946_br0591a_2-800x1861946_BR0591a_2    There are exceptions, where dates do not have the ‘Ming Guo’ preceding, but you just know (by experience) that you still have to add 11 years – however some pieces are nonetheless ambiguous!     b)   Dates outside of the 1912-1949 period which means you just read the numbers (in Chinese characters).1955_bbsa4_1-800x2311955_BBSA4_1
  3. Dates written with Arabic numbers, as we use in the West, either in the inscription or on the base.1952_bbsa8_1-800x2291952_BBSA8_1
  4. There are a couple of examples here with purchase dates (often with receipt). This, at least, gives the youngest date possible for these items.

Dated Examples in Chronological order:

dot-red Example from the Gotheborg Discussion Group Dated Porcelain Section – to view the other part of this report (the examples with red and yellow dots) please visit


There is an annual fee of $25 or more but you will also be able to access 20 years of Chinese and Japanese ceramic information (Although I am a volunteer moderator on the Gotheborg website, I have no financial involvement, and only want to protect myself from copyright breach by NOT posting the images on this WORDPRESS site). These examples have been under the scrutiny of many knowledgable people and so the authenticity of the dating is extremely good.

dot-yellow Example from Published Sources, see Bibliography at end, but images of these will be added to the Gotheborg site (above) over the next few months. (Because Gotheborg is a members only site, published images may be posted there as part of a private discussion). The authenticity of published examples is usually beyond reproach, so I am in full confidence with these examples.

dot-green Examples from my database, can be found here on my WordPress blog – https://watersilkdragon.wordpress.com/.  These examples have come from many sources, internet auction around the world, Porcelain discussion groups in China, and my own collection. Many of the pieces from China have been authenticated by very experienced moderators, and the internet auction examples are considered authentic by me, with some question marks next to the examples. I have high confidence in the authenticity of the rest. These examples are more prosaic, ‘daily use’ pieces, in general, especially compared to some of the published examples, which come from museums etc.

 Below you will find the images in chronological order. Each example has a colour key (above), so, if the image is not next to it you will find it in the alternative online location as explained above. Each example also has a unique code, for my file locations, but also for the purposes of discussion. The capital letter abbreviations in the yellow dot ‘published’ examples refers to the name of the book, a list of which is at the end of this report.

In combination, there are over 1000 dated examples in this resource. If you combine them from the different sources, for your private use at home, you will have a powerful dating tool. For the early part of the century there are many examples to be found only on the Gotheborg site, but from about the mid-1930s by far the greatest number will be found on the WordPress site. The ‘published’ examples span the centuries in groupings, based on the specialist area that the particular book covers, i.e. the Qianjiang book examples over cover up to the end of the Qing Dynasty, 1911.


1900_gengzi_br0936-800x202dot-green 1900_GengZi_BR0936 1900_gengzi_br1167-800x152dot-green 1900_GengZi_BR1167 1900_gengzi_br1266-800x185dot-green 1900_GengZi_BR1266

dot-red   1900_GD1_GengZi_1 dot-red 1900_GD1_GengZi_2dot-red 1900_GD1_GengZi_3

dot-yellow 1900_CCP_1_GengZi  dot-yellow 1900_QLQ5_GengZi_1 dot-yellow 1900_QLQ5_GengZi_2

dot-yellow 1900_QLQ5_GengZi_3 dot-yellow 1900_QLQ11_GengZi_1

So for these red and yellow doted examples you will need to look on the Gotheborg Discussion Group site, as explained above.


dot-yellow 1901_CCP_1_XinChou dot-yellow 1901_QLQ2_XinChou_1 dot-yellow1901_QLQ2_XinChou_2

dot-yellow 1901_QLQ2_XinChou_3 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ4_XinChou_1 dot-yellow  1901_QLQ4_XinChou_2

dot-yellow 1901_QLQ5_XinChou_1 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ5_XinChou_2 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ8_XinChou_1

dot-yellow 1901_QLQ11_XinChou_1 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ13_XinChou_1

Don’t worry, as we get further into the century you will find more and more of the examples are shown here….


1902_renyin_br0979-800x149dot-green 1902_RenYin_BR0979

dot-red1902_GD1_RenYin_1 dot-red 1902_GD1_RenYin_2 dot-red1902_GD1_RenYin_3

dot-yellow1902_CCP_2_RenYin dot-yellow1902_QLQ1_RenYin_1  dot-yellow1902_QLQ3_RenYin_1

dot-yellow 1902_QLQ5_RenYin_1 dot-yellow1902_QLQ6_RenYin_1 dot-yellow1902_QLQ6_RenYin_2

dot-yellow1902_QLQ9_RenYin_1 dot-yellow1902_QLQ13_RenYin_1


1903_guimao-maybe_br0963-800x146dot-green 1903_GuiMao maybe_BR09631903_guimao_br1055-800x190dot-green1903_GuiMao_BR10551903_guimao_br1271-800x236dot-green1903_GuiMao_BR1271

dot-red1903_GD3_Guimao_1 dot-red1903_GD3_Guimao_2

dot-yellow1903_QLQ1_GuiMao_1  dot-yellow1903_QLQ1_GuiMao_2 dot-yellow 1903_QLQ3_GuiMao_1

dot-yellow1903_QLQ3_GuiMao_2  dot-yellow1903_QLQ3_GuiMao_3  dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_1

dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_2 dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_3  dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_4

dot-yellow1903_QLQ7_GuiMao_1  dot-yellow1903_QLQ10_GuiMao_1  dot-yellow1903_QLQ11_GuiMao_1

dot-yellow1903_QLQ12_GuiMao_1 dot-yellow1903_QLQ12_GuiMao_2  dot-yellow1903_QLQ12_GuiMao_3


1904_jiachen_br_mr123-800x185dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR_MR123 1904_jiachen_br0942-800x183dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR0942 1904_jiachen_br0953-800x191dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR0953 1904_jiachen_br1271-800x220dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR1271

dot-red1904_GD3_JiaChen_1  dot-red1904_GD3_JiaChen_2

dot-yellow1904_CCP_1_JiaChen dot-yellow 1904_QLQ1_JiaChen_1 dot-yellow 1904_QLQ2_JiaChen_1

dot-yellow1904_QLQ7_JiaChen_1 dot-yellow 1904_QLQ10_JiaChen_1 dot-yellow 1904_QLQ10_JiaChen_2


1905_yisi_br0979-800x208dot-green1905_YiSi_BR0979 1905_yisi_mr123-800x150dot-green1905_YiSi_MR123

dot-red 1905_GD3_YiSi_1 dot-red1905_GD3_YiSi_2 dot-red1905_GD4_YiSi_1

dot-red1905_GD4_YiSi_2  dot-red1905_GD20_YiSi_1

dot-yellow1905_QLQ1_YiSi_1 dot-yellow  1905_QLQ3_YiSi_1 dot-yellow 1905_QLQ4_YiSi_1

dot-yellow1905_QLQ7_YiSi_1 dot-yellow 1905_QLQ10_YiSi_1 dot-yellow 1905_QLQ11_YiSi_1



1906_bingwu_br0931-800x155dot-green1906_BingWu_BR0931 1906_bingwu_br0931_2-800x155dot-green1906_BingWu_BR0931_21906_bingwu_br0972-800x164dot-green1906_BingWu_BR0972

dot-red1906_GD4_BingWu_1 dot-red1906_GD4_BingWu_2 dot-red1906_GD4_BingWu_3

dot-red 1906_GD5_BingWu_1 dot-red1906_GD5_BingWu_2 dot-red1906_GD5_BingWu_3

dot-yellow 1906_CCP_7_BingWu  dot-yellow 1906_QLQ2_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ4_BingWu_1

dot-yellow 1906_QLQ7_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ9_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ9_BingWu_2

dot-yellow 1906_QLQ11_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ12_BingWu_1


1907_dingwei_br0914-800x194dot-green1907_DingWei_BR0914 1907_dingwei_br1163-800x183dot-green1907_DingWei_BR1163

dot-red1907_GD5_DingWei_1 dot-red1907_GD5_DingWei_2  dot-red1907_GD5_DingWei_3

dot-red1907_GD6_DingWei_1  dot-red 1907_GD6_DingWei_2 dot-red 1907_GD6_DingWei_3

dot-red 1907_GD6_DingWei_4 dot-red1907_GD6_DingWei_5

dot-yellow  1907_CCP_8_DingWei  dot-yellow 1907_QLQ3_DingWei_1  dot-yellow 1907_QLQ7_DingWei_1

dot-yellow1907_QLQ9_DingWei_1 dot-yellow 1907_QLQ10_DingWei_1  dot-yellow 1907_QLQ13_DingWei_1


1908_wushen_br0951-800x171dot-green1908_WuShen_BR0951 1908_wushen_br1071-800x204dot-green1908_WuShen_BR1071

dot-red1908_GD6_WuShen dot-red1908_GD7_WuShen_1 dot-red 1908_GD7_WuShen_2

dot-red1908_GD7_WuShen_3 dot-red1908_GD8_WuShen

dot-yellow 1908_CCP_1_WuShen dot-yellow 1908_CCP_2_WuShen dot-yellow 1908_QLQ4_WuShen_1

dot-yellow1908_QLQ8_WuShen_1 dot-yellow 1908_QLQ9_WuShen_1 dot-yellow 1908_QLQ9_WuShen_2



dot-red1909_GD8_JiYou_1 dot-red1909_GD8_JiYou_2 dot-red1909_GD8_JiYou_3

dot-yellow 1909_CCP_5_JiYou dot-yellow 1909_QLQ8_JiYou_1 dot-yellow 1909_QLQ10_JiYou_1

dot-yellow 1909_QLQ12_JiYou_1 dot-yellow 1909_TGF1_1


1910_gengxu_br0892-800x188dot-green1910_GengXu_BR0892 1910_gengxu_br1014-800x166dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1014 1910_gengxu_br1103-maybe-800x222dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1103 maybe 1910_gengxu_br1160-800x154dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1160 1910_gengxu_br1172-800x162dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1172 1910_gengxu_br1176-800x172dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1176 1910_gengxu_br1236-800x182dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1236

dot-red1910_GD8_GengXu_1  dot-red1910_GD8_GengXu_2  dot-red1910_GD9_GengXu_1

dot-yellow 1910_CCP_5_GengXu  dot-yellow 1910_CCP1_GengXu  dot-yellow 1910_JPCB2_GengXu_1

dot-yellow1910_ICP10_1  dot-yellow1910_QLQ4_GengXu_1  dot-yellow1910_QLQ8_GengXu_1

dot-yellow1910_QLQ8_GengXu_2  dot-yellow1910_QLQ11_GengXu_1 dot-yellow1910_TGF2_GengXu_1




dot-red 1911_GD9_XinHai_1  dot-red1911_GD9_XinHai_2

dot-yellow 1911_QLQ7_XinHai_1  dot-yellow1911_QLQ8_XinHai_1


Republic of China 1912-1949

1912_renzi_br1158-800x162dot-green1912_RenZi_BR1158 1912_renzi_br1286-800x174dot-green1912_RenZi_BR1286

dot-red1912_GD9_RenZi_1 dot-red1912_GD9_RenZi_2  dot-red1912_GD9_RenZi_3

dot-red1912_GD10_RenZi_1  dot-red1912_GD10_RenZi_2  dot-red1912_GD10_RenZi_3


dot-yellow1912_ZC1_1  dot-yellow 1912_ICP10_1


1913_guichou_br0384_6-800x162dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0384_6 1913_guichou_br0411_3-800x174dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0411_3 1913_guichou_br0421_4-800x220dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0421_4 1913_GuiChou_BR0422a_5 1913_guichou_br0422a_5-800x205dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0422a_5 1913_guichou_br0506_1-800x202dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0506_11913_guichou_br1063-800x158dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1063 1913_guichou_br1123-800x192dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1123 1913_guichou_br1163-800x192dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1163 1913_guichou_br1211-800x186dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1211

dot-red1913_GD10_GuiChou_1  dot-red1913_GD10_GuiChou_2  dot-red 1913_GD10_GuiChou_3

dot-red1913_GD11_GuiChou_1 dot-red1913_GD11_GuiChou_2

dot-yellow 1913_CCP_2_GuiChou dot-yellow 1913_CCP_3_GuiChou dot-yellow 1913_CCP_5_GuiChou

dot-yellow 1913_JPCB1_GuiChou_1


1914_jiayin_br0450_2-800x177dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0450_2 1914_jiayin_br0450_3-800x256dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0450_3 1914_jiayin_br0546_6-800x138dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0546_6 1914_jiayin_br0729_5-800x177dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0729_5 1914_jiayin_br1091-800x207dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR1091

dot-red  1914_GD11_JiaYin  dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_1  dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_2

dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_3  dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_4

dot-yellow 1914_CCP_5_JiaYin


1915_yimao_br_mr115_0740-800x140dot-green1915_YiMao_BR_MR115_0740 1915_yimao_br0389_2-800x186dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0389_2 1915_yimao_br0414_5-800x288dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0414_5 1915_yimao_br0421_1-800x245dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0421_1 1915_yimao_br0422_2-800x168