Best 10 books for the Chinese Republic period (1912-1949)

I was actually surprised whilst compiling this list to find that there are only four English language books written within the last 50 years on porcelains of the Republic Period (at least to my knowledge – I’d love to be corrected). They are all listed below. Whilst they cover a large proportion of examples from this period there are some obvious omissions: porcelains with private company marks; a comprehensive outline of patterns unique or peculiar to the era; an outline of inscriptions on Republic period porcelains for Westerners; and for my tastes at least, information on what the Chinese call ‘daily use’ porcelains – utilitarian wares. These latter constitute their own sub-section and no one has looked them systematically, even though they will form the bulk of collectable examples from this era in the future. This list does not include the large number of books, all Chinese, which deal with Qianjiang porcelains and which therefore often include information on Literati (Eight Friends of Zhushan etc) porcelains and span the two centuries – I’ll leave that list for someone else.

1 .Chinese Porcelain of the Republic Period 2008 ISBN 978-988-98818-9-4  Simon Kwan, Muwen Tang Fine Arts Publication Ltd. (Its predecessor, Brush & Clay, same author is almost exactly the same but out of print)

Front_Kwan

Excellent pictures of high-end plaques and porcelains collected by the Kwan family since the 1960s, including a series of chapters on the painters and their lives, the problems with ‘Hongxian’ pieces, some marks of the period, and Qianjiang and Literati porcelains. This book is in English as well as Chinese, which is, with the explanatory chapters, why it tops the list.

2. The Complete Collection of Porcelain of Jiangxi Province Morning Glory Publishers –           Porcelain from the year 1912-1949 (I) 2008  ed. Tie Yuan (Company and Artist signed) ISBN 978-7-5054-1744-1

Front COMPLETE Vol 1_LR

–           Porcelain from the year 1912-1949 (II) 2008 ed. Tie Yuan (reign marked copies) ISBN 978-7-5054-1745-8

Front COMPLETE Vol II

These two volumes have pictures of porcelains from provincial museums throughout Jiangxi, including the Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum and the Jiangxi Provincial Museum in Jingdezhen. The text is in Chinese but the picture captions are in English, so it is completely understandable. The books have a more representative range of pieces from this period, and for that reason I find it very interesting. The first volume includes all pieces from private companies, individual artists, and schools. The second volume includes those reign marked pieces contemporary to the period, i.e. Hongxian and Jurentang, and also the large number of examples which have earlier reign marks from the Ming and Qing dynasties, but are of Republic period age. This highlights the fact that the Chinese see this type of Republic period reign marked ware as a classification in itself.

3. Innovations and Creations, A Retrospect of 20th Century Porcelain from Jingdezhen 2004  ISBN 962-7101-69-9  Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum and Art Museum & The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Front INNO_CREAT

Another book with many images, in Chinese and English, text as well as captions. An excellent range of examples, not just from the Republic period but also from the People’s Republic, items not seen in other books.

4. The Great Fortune, Chinese & Japanese Porcelain of the 19th and 20th centuries & their forerunners, from the Weishaupt Collection 2002 ISBN 3-00-010306-6     George Weishaupt

Front_Great Fortune

This book is packed full of information and pictures, in English and German. The detailed captions, translating inscriptions and marks, as well as the essays on a range of interesting subjects (Dayazhai. Monochromes, Motifs etc) make it endlessly interesting. One comes back to it regularly to discover more. Covers more than just Republic era porcelains.

5a. The Republic of China, Porcelain on Inspection Vol I: Pattern, Inscription and Bibliotic (MINGUO CIQI JIANDING: WENSHI KUANSHI BIANWEI) 2004 ISBN 7-80178-136-8, by Tie Yuan and Xi Ming

Front POI Vol I_LR

This book, and its counterpart below, are in Chinese only, unfortunately. However, it is packed full of information and would love to have it translated. It lists entrepreneurs, educators, painters, makers, outlines patterns under headings such as figural, landscape, animal, flower and bird, four seasons flowers, inscriptions, all with masses of images from the museums of Jiangxi (some of which are in other Chinese books above). It also has chapters on dated porcelains, hallmarks, company marks and imitations, plus a range of appendices which look very interesting.

5b. The Republic of China, Porcelain on Inspection Vol II: Paste, Glaze, Paint and Shapes (MINGUO CIQI JIANDING: TAIYOU CAIHUI QIXING) 2004 ISBN 7-80178-137-6, by Tie Yuan and Xi Ming

Front POI Vol II

This is the sister book to the one above – Chinese text only, but also packed with information – yet to be translated.

6. Century Retrospect, Zeng’s Collection of Jingdezhen Porcelain during 20th Century 2003 ISBN 7-80178-089-2 eds. Zeng Meifang & Zeng Chengyu Hua Ling Press

Front Zengs_LR

This book shows the personal collection of Zeng Meifang, a gentleman from Nanchang, Jiangxi. All classes of porcelains from the Republic period and later are covered, with examples not seen elsewhere, which is why this book is so interesting. One introductory chapter and the captions are in English, the rest in Chinese. Hard to get.

7. From the Dragon’s Treasure, Chinese Porcelain from the 19th & 20th Century 1987 ISBN 1-870076-05-2 Gunhilde Avitabile Bamboo Publishing

Front_from Dragons Treasure

This little treasure now seems rather dated, but it is still excellent for showing Hongxian, Jurentang and Qianlong marked pieces which are at least guaranteed to be from the Republic period. Also shows Jiaqing to Xuantong examples. All pieces are from the Weishaupt Collection.

8. Dating Chinese Porcelain from Facial Features and Adornments: A Handbook 2013 ISBN 978-91-637-3337-6 by Tommy Eklof

Tommy2

Of course, Tommy’s handbook is essential for dating and other purposes and we all should have a copy! The Republic period is extremely well covered, not least because so many examples from this era are dated in their inscriptions and therefore provide excellent quality control.

9. Canon of Colored Ceramic painting of Famous Artists in Modern China 2005 ISBN 7-80730-031-0

Front CANON_LR

This is an interesting book, which looks at late C19th and Republic era examples of mixed quality. Listed according to porcelain shape and age, the book is packed full of images which show the pieces, the artists, the inscriptions, and other details. Text in Chinese, captions in English as well. Hard to get.

10. Late Qing Dynasty porcelain: Jiangxi Porcelain Company  2012 ISBN 978-7-5480-1549-9 233pp by Lai Dayi,  Jiangxi Fine Arts Publishing House

no pic sorry

This book contains one man’s collection of Jiangxi Porcelain Company pieces, loads of photos and marks, introduction and preface in English, rest is Chinese. Fascinating.

For the desperate, here are a few other recommended books on the era:

  • Republic of China Porcelain 2010 ISBN 978-7-200-08365-1 188pp by 北京艺术博物馆, published by 北京出版社
  • A Discourse on Hung Hsien Porcelain 1987 ISBN 9-781588-860187 64pp by Mark Chou

This list was written in about 2013/14 so there would be more out there now, but none in English as far as I am aware.

 

Best wishes, Michaela

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Chinese porcelain LIDDED SERVING BOWLS – a 20th Century shape

This is another very satisfying shape. They were produced mainly throughout the Republic Period (1912-1949) and come in 3 main sizes – approximately 15.5cm/6”; 19.5cm/7 ½”; 26cm/10”. The smaller size is most common and the very largest size is most rare. A few may have been produced in the last years of the Qing dynasty, and a few were produced during the first part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC 1949-present).

Many were produced to order by private companies, usually as part of a larger dinner service. In general but not exclusively the patterns which are derived from the Qing period show reign marks, new patterns developed from the Qianjiang and Literati movements/palettes show company marks.

Some of them have inscriptions which provide information regarding their makers, dating, and commendations as a gift.

The following images (nearly 200 I’m afraid!) will show, in no particular order, the range of patterns and marks to be found on these lidded serving bowls. As a whole they give a good representation of the ‘daily use’ porcelain of the Republic Period – in fact there are images of Chiang Kai Shek and Madame Chiang Kai Shek eating from these wares! – shown at the end. I will note where possible if an example has a date, but otherwise this is just a visual report to feast the eyes and elucidate the considerable variation in enamelling and painting during this period.

BR0369_5 (800x240) (800x240)BR0104_5 (800x239) (800x239)BR0389_5 (800x222) (800x222)BR0848_2 (800x207) (800x207)BR0176_7 (800x202) (800x202)BR0063_3 (800x233) (800x233)BR0454_1 (800x192) (800x192)BR0321_3 (800x204) (800x204)BR0239_3 (800x198) (800x198)BR0728_5 (800x187) (800x187)

BR0596_3 (800x166) (800x166)

Dated 1937

BR_MR148_0976 (800x192) (800x192)

PRC, early

BR0300_1 (800x200) (800x200)BR0524_1 (800x181) (800x181)BR0356_5 (800x165) (800x165)BR0637_2 (800x177) (800x177)BR_MR37_0269 (800x188) (800x188)BR0822_9 (800x194) (800x194)BR0410_6 (800x183) (800x183)

BR0521_7 (800x186) (800x186)

Dated 1924

BR0282_9 (800x165) (800x165)

PRC, early

BR0768_5 (800x195) (800x195)BR0710_1 (800x187) (800x187)BR0461_5 (800x189) (800x189)BR0856_3 (800x212) (800x212)DP_1zm (800x189) (800x189)BR0708a_3 (800x192) (800x192)BR0674_5 (800x187) (800x187)BR0168_4 (800x172) (800x172)BR0759_2 (800x184) (800x184)

BR0786_5 (800x167) (800x167)

Dated 1936

BR0041_4 (800x160) (800x160)BR0784_5 (800x203) (800x203)BR_MR166_1087 (800x186) (800x186)BR_MR100_0646 (800x189) (800x189)

BR0702_1 (800x182) (800x182)

Dated 1931

BR0189_3 (800x169) (800x169)BR_MR106_0679 (800x194) (800x194)BR0719_7 (800x189) (800x189)BR0502_2 (800x175) (800x175)BR0203_1 (800x160) (800x160)BR0220_3 (800x186) (800x186)BR0621_6 (800x266) (800x266)BR0361_4 (800x172) (800x172)BR0620_4 (800x194) (800x194)

BR0706_6 (800x202) (800x202)

Dated 1934

BR0182_2 (800x183) (800x183)BR0756_2 (800x181) (800x181)BR0527_3 (800x190) (800x190)BR0550_5 (800x185) (800x185)BR0705_5 (800x199) (800x199)BR0708_5 (800x180) (800x180)BR0592_5 (800x214) (800x214)BR0655_3 (800x210) (800x210)BR0515_3 (800x190) (800x190)BR0738_1 (800x189) (800x189)BR0715_2 (800x200) (800x200)BR_MR58_0387 (800x194) (800x194)BR0721_5 (800x186) (800x186)

BR0588_7 (800x147) (800x147)

Dated 1937

BR0598_1 (800x155) (800x155)

Dated 1936

BR0131_2 (800x187) (800x187)BR0182_1 (800x178) (800x178)BR0699_2 (800x171) (800x171)BR0082_3 (800x182) (800x182)BR0293_5 (800x188) (800x188)BR0583_5 (800x174) (800x174)

BR0711_7 (800x191) (800x191)

Dated 1933

BR_MR100_0641 (800x189) (800x189)BR0481a_2 (800x183) (800x183)BR_MR139_0882 (800x180) (800x180)BR0715_5 (800x188) (800x188)BR0711_4 (800x168) (800x168)

BR0732_4 (800x147) (800x147)

Dated 1938

BR0631_2 (800x192) (800x192)

Dated 1934

BR_MR75_0501 (800x169) (800x169)

BR0721_3 (800x198) (800x198)

Dated 1933

BR0574_3 (800x193) (800x193)

BR0698_6 (800x186) (800x186)

Dated 1931

BR0842_4 (800x169) (800x169)

Dated 1944

DPExBR_012_2 (800x149) (800x149)BR0712_7 (800x189) (800x189)BR0641_1 (800x213) (800x213)BR_MR80_0536 (800x178) (800x178)BR0731_6 (800x184) (800x184)BR0700_2 (800x198) (800x198)BR0709_1 (800x176) (800x176)BR0634_2 (800x184) (800x184)BR0833_4 (800x173) (800x173)BR0877_7 (800x160) (800x160)BR0589_3 (800x203) (800x203)BR0632_6 (800x232) (800x232)DPExBR_033_3 (800x167) (800x167)BR0519_4 (800x175) (800x175)DP_1zr (800x140) (800x140)BR0489_1 (800x184) (800x184)BR_MR102_0659 (800x201) (800x201)

BR0495_1 (800x187) (800x187)

Dated 1936

BR0707_1 (800x170) (800x170)BR0342_1 (800x160) (800x160)BR0104_3 (800x217) (800x217)

BR0702_3 (800x191) (800x191)

Dated 1934

BR_MR140_0892 (800x187) (800x187)BR0438_5 (800x205) (800x205)BR0279_4 (800x150) (800x150)

BR0712_5 (800x195) (800x195)

Dated 1933

BR0640_3 (800x180) (800x180)BR0645_5 (800x213) (800x213)BR0775_4 (800x142) (800x142)BR0375_2 (800x168) (800x168)BR0279_3 (800x146) (800x146)

BR0784_4 (800x164) (800x164)

Dated 1937

BR0534_6 (800x194) (800x194)BR0802_7 (800x159) (800x159)BR0632_1 (800x154) (800x154)

BR0703_2 (800x167) (800x167)

Dated 1953, PRC

BR0706_4 (800x162) (800x162)BR0178_4 (800x183) (800x183)BR0838_3 (800x142) (800x142)BR0712_1 (800x178) (800x178)BR0701_1 (800x180) (800x180)

BR0844_1 (800x189) (800x189)

Dated 1926 or 1937

BR0700_6 (800x178) (800x178)

BR0833_7 (800x156) (800x156)

Dated 1934

BR0713_6 (800x192) (800x192)BR0858_3 (800x128) (800x128)

BR0720_1 (800x178) (800x178)

Dated 1944

BR0587_2 (800x183) (800x183)BR0732_6 (800x142) (800x142)BR0159_4 (800x178) (800x178)

BR0273_1 (800x182) (800x182)

Dated 1931

BR0702_6 (800x179) (800x179)BR0705_2 (800x141) (800x141)BR0712_2 (800x177) (800x177)BR0657_1 (800x170) (800x170)BR0732_5 (800x181) (800x181)

BR0641_5 (800x165) (800x165)

Dated 1936

BR0732_3 (800x178) (800x178)BR0586_4 (800x180) (800x180)BR0629_4 (800x188) (800x188)BR0653_1 (800x168) (800x168)BR0622_5 (800x196) (800x196)BR0324_3 (800x181) (800x181)BR0821_1 (800x191) (800x191)

BR0273_2 (800x177) (800x177)

Dated 1931

BR0178_3 (800x180) (800x180)BR0862_1 (800x174) (800x174)BR0260_1 (800x177) (800x177)BR0481_1 (800x166) (800x166)BR0661_1 (800x187) (800x187)BR0704_2 (800x141) (800x141)BR0774_6 (800x140) (800x140)BR0089_3 (800x141) (800x141)BR0729_3 (800x142) (800x142)BR0844_3 (800x197) (800x197)BR0843_5 (800x200) (800x200)BR0721_2 (800x171) (800x171)BR0843_8 (800x153) (800x153)BR0727_1 (800x165) (800x165)BR0282_1 (800x162) (800x162)

BR0689a_4 (800x126) (800x126)

Dated 1930

BR0705_3 (800x149) (800x149)BR0324_1 (800x180) (800x180)

BR0843_2 (800x184) (800x184)

Dated 1922

BR0772_6 (800x183) (800x183)

BR0783_5 (800x176) (800x176)

Dated 1931

BR0708_6 (800x175) (800x175)

Dated 1921

BR0142_4 (800x166) (800x166)

BR0843_6 (800x141) (800x141)

Dated 1935

BR0324_2 (800x177) (800x177)BR0730_3 (800x141) (800x141)BR0656_2 (800x168) (800x168)

BR0718_3 (800x164) (800x164)

Dated 1932

BR0728_4 (800x159) (800x159)

Dated 1935

BR0707_5 (800x141) (800x141)BR0159_6 (800x178) (800x178)BR0843_3 (800x151) (800x151)

BR0863_1 (800x158) (800x158)

Dated 1922

BR0123_1 (800x143) (800x143)BR0303_3 (800x125) (800x125)BR0633_5 (800x182) (800x182)BR0837_4 (800x162) (800x162)BR0159_5 (800x170) (800x170)

BR0720_3 (800x142) (800x142)

Dated 1932

BR0718_1 (800x186) (800x186)BR0719_6 (800x137) (800x137)BR0497_1 (800x147) (800x147)

BR0622_4 (800x146) (800x146)

Dated 1936

BR0586_5 (800x116) (800x116)BR0662_4 (800x140) (800x140)BR0657_5 (800x140) (800x140)BR0633_6 (800x143) (800x143)BR0596_2 (800x170) (800x170)BR0517_1 (800x140) (800x140)

BR0736_4 (800x136) (800x136)

PRC

BR0772_7 (800x151) (800x151)

BR_MR147_0975 (800x185) (800x185)

PRC

Chiang Kai Shek Bowls

Chiang Kai Shek and Madame Chiang Kai Shek, eating a meal in their home, photo taken after 1941

Dated 20th Century Chinese Porcelain Compilation: 1900 to 2000

What is this resource?

This is a compilation of dated examples of Chinese porcelain from the years 1900-2000.  Most are authenticated, a very few may be dubious (mainly because I am constantly learning). There are over 1000 examples in this resource, many of which you can see below. However, for copyright reasons, some are held on the Gotheborg Discussion group site – you would have to join up to that site to view those.

The image compilations are shown in chronological order. Most of the dates are from inscriptions on the sides of the items. A very few are dated on the base. See below for more details on the dating.

How to use this resource: 

1. This compilation of dated porcelains may help you to date your porcelains more precisely.

To help you date your piece simply scroll down until you find something similar, in pattern, in enamel colour etc, mark, calligraphy. Try to determine if that particular attribute occurs over a long or short period of time – some patterns last for decades. This will help to pinpoint a date for your piece. However, this really only works if there are multiple examples with the same pattern. One example is NOT enough to give an accurate dating.

For example:  I have a bowl with no date but with a very distinctive pattern and ground colour. Until I put this compilation together I wasn’t sure how old it was, and just labelled it ‘Republic’.

br_mr81_0545-800x183

When I scroll down through the compilation below I see similar dated items coming up in 1918:

1918_wuwu_br0818_5-800x2511918_WuWu_BR0818_5jpg

:in 1923, with a slightly different subject

1923_guihai_br1042-800x1811923_GuiHai_BR1042.jpg

:in 1924  there are several examples all very similar to my bowl

1924_jiazi_br0834_1-800x1791924_JiaZi_BR0834_1.jpg

1924_jiazi_br0842_7-800x1821924_JiaZi_BR0842_7.jpg

1924_jiazi_br1321-800x1881924_JiaZi_BR1321.jpg

1924_jiazi_br13064-800x1681924_JiaZi_BR13064.jpg

:in 1925 there are two examples, although one has white ground instead of salmon pink

1925_yichou_br0451_4-800x1801925_YiChou_BR0451_4jpg

1925_yichou_br0654_3-800x1931925_YiChou_BR0654_3.jpg

:in 1926, just one

1926_bingyin_br0457_6-800x1831926_BingYin_BR0457_6.jpg

After that there are no more examples, so the tentative age range of these pieces, until new dated pieces apear, is 1918-1926, with a plethora in 1924. This group gives some idea of the range of shapes that were made with this decoration. My original bowl has a Shanghai base mark, and it apparent from this and other information that many of these types of porcelain, especially with the gilded rims and calligraphy were made for Shanghai companies, either in Jingdezhen or in ‘red’ (low firing enamel) kilns in or around Shanghai itself.

2. This compilation of dated porcelains will show how patterns change through time. It certainly shows the waning influence of Qing patterns during the 1920s/1930s and the uptake of literati influences in the patterns and painting, with a whole new range of striking patterns appearing on dated pieces in the mid Republic period. Note the appearance of coloured grounds with dates which were never seen before the 1920s – all dated pieces before that were either Qianjiang with white ground or their later literati derivatives. By the 1930s some patterns reminiscent of the Qing dynasty start to be produced again.

3. This compilation of dated porcelains will show the emergence of new shapes which can be linked to particular eras or even decades. This is also the case for new patterns or even colour combinations. For example, it becomes apparent when looking at the dated examples after WWII, from 1945 onwards, that the palette of white ground and black borders is very prevalent. Excluding some of the more ornate borders which may have been made pre- war, this particular combination is very distinctive and linked to the 1945-1955 period.

1947_br0594_4-800x211

4. This compilation can give some indication of the time range of particular private company base marks. For example the Shanghai company Jian Hua – the first piece is in 1935, then 1940 etc. In fact this company mark crops up in the 1940-1945 period quite regularly, at a time when few porcelain companies were able to produce porcelains because of the Japanese occupation. Perhaps it is possible that the Japanese gave some dispensation to this particular company during that time to continue to produce pieces from their ‘red’ kiln in or around Shanghai?

1935_yihai_br0625_6-800x1561935_YiHai_BR0625_6.jpg1940_br0625_3-800x1681940_BR0625_3.jpg

5. Especially after 1945 there are very few dated pieces from Jingdezhen, most are from Nanchang (to be expanded in another report)…..

6. Despite the fact relatively few porcelains were manufactured during the Japanese Occupation (1937-1945), it is apparent that this did not include porcelain plaques, which seem to be quite prolific at this time. I have yet to determine the reasons, other than logistical, for this.

CAVEAT:  It should be noted that this compilation cannot be comprehensive. I have been gathering these images for some 15 years, but have really only learned the dating translations in the last couple of years. All errors are mine.  There are thousands of dated porcelains throughout the world with a huge repository in China itself, but this is meant to be a pictorial start to educating ourselves from what the porcelains themselves can teach us.

In addition, it is emphasised that within the published examples, there is an inherent bias because the pieces often come from a very particular source – for example, from a collection of just ‘Jiangxi Porcelain Company’ pieces or from a provincial collection which acquired many of its pieces from a State teaching Institute in the 1970s, or from a book which is only about Qianjiang porcelains etc.

HOW ARE THE PORCELAINS DATED?

There are several methods the Chinese use to show when the porcelain was made:

  1. Cyclical dates in the inscription. See any or all of the following links for an explanation:

http://www.gotheborg.com/marks/dates_page.shtml

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_sexagenary_cycle

http://www.koh-antique.com/qj/table/table.htm

  1. Cyclical dates (as above) within the base mark, quite rare.
  2. Dates written with Chinese number characters in the inscription (and more rarely on the base). This can be subdivided into:-        a)  dates within the Republic period: i.e. sometimes the characters for ‘Ming Guo’ (民国) precede the number characters, which means you add an extra 11 years (as the Republic started in 1912) to the numbers to get the actual datee. Ming Guo 1922 = actual year 1933.1946_br0591a_2-800x1861946_BR0591a_2    There are exceptions, where dates do not have the ‘Ming Guo’ preceding, but you just know (by experience) that you still have to add 11 years – however some pieces are nonetheless ambiguous!     b)   Dates outside of the 1912-1949 period which means you just read the numbers (in Chinese characters).1955_bbsa4_1-800x2311955_BBSA4_1
  3. Dates written with Arabic numbers, as we use in the West, either in the inscription or on the base.1952_bbsa8_1-800x2291952_BBSA8_1
  4. There are a couple of examples here with purchase dates (often with receipt). This, at least, gives the youngest date possible for these items.

Dated Examples in Chronological order:

dot-red Example from the Gotheborg Discussion Group Dated Porcelain Section – to view the other part of this report (the examples with red and yellow dots) please visit

http://www.gotheborg.com/discus/read.php?file=/647528/737270.html&lm=1484035385

There is an annual fee of $25 or more but you will also be able to access 20 years of Chinese and Japanese ceramic information (Although I am a volunteer moderator on the Gotheborg website, I have no financial involvement, and only want to protect myself from copyright breach by NOT posting the images on this WORDPRESS site). These examples have been under the scrutiny of many knowledgable people and so the authenticity of the dating is extremely good.

dot-yellow Example from Published Sources, see Bibliography at end, but images of these will be added to the Gotheborg site (above) over the next few months. (Because Gotheborg is a members only site, published images may be posted there as part of a private discussion). The authenticity of published examples is usually beyond reproach, so I am in full confidence with these examples.

dot-green Examples from my database, can be found here on my WordPress blog – https://watersilkdragon.wordpress.com/.  These examples have come from many sources, internet auction around the world, Porcelain discussion groups in China, and my own collection. Many of the pieces from China have been authenticated by very experienced moderators, and the internet auction examples are considered authentic by me, with some question marks next to the examples. I have high confidence in the authenticity of the rest. These examples are more prosaic, ‘daily use’ pieces, in general, especially compared to some of the published examples, which come from museums etc.

 Below you will find the images in chronological order. Each example has a colour key (above), so, if the image is not next to it you will find it in the alternative online location as explained above. Each example also has a unique code, for my file locations, but also for the purposes of discussion. The capital letter abbreviations in the yellow dot ‘published’ examples refers to the name of the book, a list of which is at the end of this report.

In combination, there are over 1000 dated examples in this resource. If you combine them from the different sources, for your private use at home, you will have a powerful dating tool. For the early part of the century there are many examples to be found only on the Gotheborg site, but from about the mid-1930s by far the greatest number will be found on the WordPress site. The ‘published’ examples span the centuries in groupings, based on the specialist area that the particular book covers, i.e. the Qianjiang book examples over cover up to the end of the Qing Dynasty, 1911.

1900-no

1900_gengzi_br0936-800x202dot-green 1900_GengZi_BR0936 1900_gengzi_br1167-800x152dot-green 1900_GengZi_BR1167 1900_gengzi_br1266-800x185dot-green 1900_GengZi_BR1266

dot-red   1900_GD1_GengZi_1 dot-red 1900_GD1_GengZi_2dot-red 1900_GD1_GengZi_3

dot-yellow 1900_CCP_1_GengZi  dot-yellow 1900_QLQ5_GengZi_1 dot-yellow 1900_QLQ5_GengZi_2

dot-yellow 1900_QLQ5_GengZi_3 dot-yellow 1900_QLQ11_GengZi_1

So for these red and yellow doted examples you will need to look on the Gotheborg Discussion Group site, as explained above.

1901-no

dot-yellow 1901_CCP_1_XinChou dot-yellow 1901_QLQ2_XinChou_1 dot-yellow1901_QLQ2_XinChou_2

dot-yellow 1901_QLQ2_XinChou_3 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ4_XinChou_1 dot-yellow  1901_QLQ4_XinChou_2

dot-yellow 1901_QLQ5_XinChou_1 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ5_XinChou_2 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ8_XinChou_1

dot-yellow 1901_QLQ11_XinChou_1 dot-yellow 1901_QLQ13_XinChou_1

Don’t worry, as we get further into the century you will find more and more of the examples are shown here….

1902-no

1902_renyin_br0979-800x149dot-green 1902_RenYin_BR0979

dot-red1902_GD1_RenYin_1 dot-red 1902_GD1_RenYin_2 dot-red1902_GD1_RenYin_3

dot-yellow1902_CCP_2_RenYin dot-yellow1902_QLQ1_RenYin_1  dot-yellow1902_QLQ3_RenYin_1

dot-yellow 1902_QLQ5_RenYin_1 dot-yellow1902_QLQ6_RenYin_1 dot-yellow1902_QLQ6_RenYin_2

dot-yellow1902_QLQ9_RenYin_1 dot-yellow1902_QLQ13_RenYin_1

1903-no

1903_guimao-maybe_br0963-800x146dot-green 1903_GuiMao maybe_BR09631903_guimao_br1055-800x190dot-green1903_GuiMao_BR10551903_guimao_br1271-800x236dot-green1903_GuiMao_BR1271

dot-red1903_GD3_Guimao_1 dot-red1903_GD3_Guimao_2

dot-yellow1903_QLQ1_GuiMao_1  dot-yellow1903_QLQ1_GuiMao_2 dot-yellow 1903_QLQ3_GuiMao_1

dot-yellow1903_QLQ3_GuiMao_2  dot-yellow1903_QLQ3_GuiMao_3  dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_1

dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_2 dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_3  dot-yellow1903_QLQ6_GuiMao_4

dot-yellow1903_QLQ7_GuiMao_1  dot-yellow1903_QLQ10_GuiMao_1  dot-yellow1903_QLQ11_GuiMao_1

dot-yellow1903_QLQ12_GuiMao_1 dot-yellow1903_QLQ12_GuiMao_2  dot-yellow1903_QLQ12_GuiMao_3

1904-no

1904_jiachen_br_mr123-800x185dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR_MR123 1904_jiachen_br0942-800x183dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR0942 1904_jiachen_br0953-800x191dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR0953 1904_jiachen_br1271-800x220dot-green1904_JiaChen_BR1271

dot-red1904_GD3_JiaChen_1  dot-red1904_GD3_JiaChen_2

dot-yellow1904_CCP_1_JiaChen dot-yellow 1904_QLQ1_JiaChen_1 dot-yellow 1904_QLQ2_JiaChen_1

dot-yellow1904_QLQ7_JiaChen_1 dot-yellow 1904_QLQ10_JiaChen_1 dot-yellow 1904_QLQ10_JiaChen_2

1905-no

1905_yisi_br0979-800x208dot-green1905_YiSi_BR0979 1905_yisi_mr123-800x150dot-green1905_YiSi_MR123

dot-red 1905_GD3_YiSi_1 dot-red1905_GD3_YiSi_2 dot-red1905_GD4_YiSi_1

dot-red1905_GD4_YiSi_2  dot-red1905_GD20_YiSi_1

dot-yellow1905_QLQ1_YiSi_1 dot-yellow  1905_QLQ3_YiSi_1 dot-yellow 1905_QLQ4_YiSi_1

dot-yellow1905_QLQ7_YiSi_1 dot-yellow 1905_QLQ10_YiSi_1 dot-yellow 1905_QLQ11_YiSi_1

dot-yellow1905_QLQ12_YiSi_1

1906-no

1906_bingwu_br0931-800x155dot-green1906_BingWu_BR0931 1906_bingwu_br0931_2-800x155dot-green1906_BingWu_BR0931_21906_bingwu_br0972-800x164dot-green1906_BingWu_BR0972

dot-red1906_GD4_BingWu_1 dot-red1906_GD4_BingWu_2 dot-red1906_GD4_BingWu_3

dot-red 1906_GD5_BingWu_1 dot-red1906_GD5_BingWu_2 dot-red1906_GD5_BingWu_3

dot-yellow 1906_CCP_7_BingWu  dot-yellow 1906_QLQ2_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ4_BingWu_1

dot-yellow 1906_QLQ7_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ9_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ9_BingWu_2

dot-yellow 1906_QLQ11_BingWu_1 dot-yellow 1906_QLQ12_BingWu_1

1907-no

1907_dingwei_br0914-800x194dot-green1907_DingWei_BR0914 1907_dingwei_br1163-800x183dot-green1907_DingWei_BR1163

dot-red1907_GD5_DingWei_1 dot-red1907_GD5_DingWei_2  dot-red1907_GD5_DingWei_3

dot-red1907_GD6_DingWei_1  dot-red 1907_GD6_DingWei_2 dot-red 1907_GD6_DingWei_3

dot-red 1907_GD6_DingWei_4 dot-red1907_GD6_DingWei_5

dot-yellow  1907_CCP_8_DingWei  dot-yellow 1907_QLQ3_DingWei_1  dot-yellow 1907_QLQ7_DingWei_1

dot-yellow1907_QLQ9_DingWei_1 dot-yellow 1907_QLQ10_DingWei_1  dot-yellow 1907_QLQ13_DingWei_1

1908-no

1908_wushen_br0951-800x171dot-green1908_WuShen_BR0951 1908_wushen_br1071-800x204dot-green1908_WuShen_BR1071

dot-red1908_GD6_WuShen dot-red1908_GD7_WuShen_1 dot-red 1908_GD7_WuShen_2

dot-red1908_GD7_WuShen_3 dot-red1908_GD8_WuShen

dot-yellow 1908_CCP_1_WuShen dot-yellow 1908_CCP_2_WuShen dot-yellow 1908_QLQ4_WuShen_1

dot-yellow1908_QLQ8_WuShen_1 dot-yellow 1908_QLQ9_WuShen_1 dot-yellow 1908_QLQ9_WuShen_2

1909-no

1909_jiyou_br0964-800x234dot-green1909_JiYou_BR0964

dot-red1909_GD8_JiYou_1 dot-red1909_GD8_JiYou_2 dot-red1909_GD8_JiYou_3

dot-yellow 1909_CCP_5_JiYou dot-yellow 1909_QLQ8_JiYou_1 dot-yellow 1909_QLQ10_JiYou_1

dot-yellow 1909_QLQ12_JiYou_1 dot-yellow 1909_TGF1_1

1910-no

1910_gengxu_br0892-800x188dot-green1910_GengXu_BR0892 1910_gengxu_br1014-800x166dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1014 1910_gengxu_br1103-maybe-800x222dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1103 maybe 1910_gengxu_br1160-800x154dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1160 1910_gengxu_br1172-800x162dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1172 1910_gengxu_br1176-800x172dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1176 1910_gengxu_br1236-800x182dot-green1910_GengXu_BR1236

dot-red1910_GD8_GengXu_1  dot-red1910_GD8_GengXu_2  dot-red1910_GD9_GengXu_1

dot-yellow 1910_CCP_5_GengXu  dot-yellow 1910_CCP1_GengXu  dot-yellow 1910_JPCB2_GengXu_1

dot-yellow1910_ICP10_1  dot-yellow1910_QLQ4_GengXu_1  dot-yellow1910_QLQ8_GengXu_1

dot-yellow1910_QLQ8_GengXu_2  dot-yellow1910_QLQ11_GengXu_1 dot-yellow1910_TGF2_GengXu_1

dot-yellow1910_TGF3_GengXu_1

1911-no

1911_xinhai_br1149-800x186dot-green1911_XinHai_BR1149

dot-red 1911_GD9_XinHai_1  dot-red1911_GD9_XinHai_2

dot-yellow 1911_QLQ7_XinHai_1  dot-yellow1911_QLQ8_XinHai_1

1912-no

Republic of China 1912-1949

1912_renzi_br1158-800x162dot-green1912_RenZi_BR1158 1912_renzi_br1286-800x174dot-green1912_RenZi_BR1286

dot-red1912_GD9_RenZi_1 dot-red1912_GD9_RenZi_2  dot-red1912_GD9_RenZi_3

dot-red1912_GD10_RenZi_1  dot-red1912_GD10_RenZi_2  dot-red1912_GD10_RenZi_3

dot-red1912_GD11_RenZi_1

dot-yellow1912_ZC1_1  dot-yellow 1912_ICP10_1

1913-no

1913_guichou_br0384_6-800x162dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0384_6 1913_guichou_br0411_3-800x174dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0411_3 1913_guichou_br0421_4-800x220dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0421_4 1913_GuiChou_BR0422a_5 1913_guichou_br0422a_5-800x205dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0422a_5 1913_guichou_br0506_1-800x202dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR0506_11913_guichou_br1063-800x158dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1063 1913_guichou_br1123-800x192dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1123 1913_guichou_br1163-800x192dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1163 1913_guichou_br1211-800x186dot-green1913_GuiChou_BR1211

dot-red1913_GD10_GuiChou_1  dot-red1913_GD10_GuiChou_2  dot-red 1913_GD10_GuiChou_3

dot-red1913_GD11_GuiChou_1 dot-red1913_GD11_GuiChou_2

dot-yellow 1913_CCP_2_GuiChou dot-yellow 1913_CCP_3_GuiChou dot-yellow 1913_CCP_5_GuiChou

dot-yellow 1913_JPCB1_GuiChou_1

1914-no

1914_jiayin_br0450_2-800x177dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0450_2 1914_jiayin_br0450_3-800x256dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0450_3 1914_jiayin_br0546_6-800x138dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0546_6 1914_jiayin_br0729_5-800x177dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR0729_5 1914_jiayin_br1091-800x207dot-green1914_JiaYin_BR1091

dot-red  1914_GD11_JiaYin  dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_1  dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_2

dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_3  dot-red1914_GD12_JiaYin_4

dot-yellow 1914_CCP_5_JiaYin

1915-no

1915_yimao_br_mr115_0740-800x140dot-green1915_YiMao_BR_MR115_0740 1915_yimao_br0389_2-800x186dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0389_2 1915_yimao_br0414_5-800x288dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0414_5 1915_yimao_br0421_1-800x245dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0421_1 1915_yimao_br0422_2-800x168dot-green15_YiMao_BR0422_2 1915_yimao_br0422_3-800x175dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0422_3 1915_yimao_br0450_4-800x159dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0450_4 1915_yimao_br0599_6-800x190dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0599_6 1915_yimao_br0651_3-800x227dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0651_3 1915_yimao_br0725a_8-800x181dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0725a_8 1915_yimao_br0726_5-800x196dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0726_5 1915_yimao_br0963-800x190dot-green1915_YiMao_BR0963

dot-red1915_GD12_YiMao_1 dot-red1915_GD13_YiMao_1  dot-red1915_GD13_YiMao_2

dot-red1915_GD13_YiMao_3  dot-red 1915_GD13_YiMao_4  dot-red1915_GD14_YiMao_1

dot-red1915_GD14_YiMao_2  dot-red1915_GD14_YiMao_3

dot-yellow  1915_CCP_3_YiMao_1  dot-yellow 1915_CCP_3_YiMao_2

1916-no

1916_bingchen_br0377_5-800x134dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0377_51916_bingchen_br0377_6-800x150dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0377_6 1916_bingchen_br0450_5-800x210dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0450_5 1916_bingchen_br0451_1-800x171dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0451_1 1916_bingchen_br0451_2-800x183dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0451_2 1916_bingchen_br0706_2-800x181dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0706_2 1916_bingchen_br0998_1-800x193dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0998_11916_bingchen_br0998_2-800x202dot-green1916_BingChen_BR0998_21916_bingchen_br1110-800x185dot-green1916_BingChen_BR11101916_bingchen_br1316-800x179dot-green1916_BingChen_BR13161916_bingchen_br1338-800x167dot-green1916_BingChen_BR1338

dot-red1916_GD14_BingChen_1 dot-red1916_GD14_BingChen_2  dot-red1916_GD15_BingChen_1

dot-red1916_GD15_BingChen_2  dot-red1916_GD15_BingChen_3  dot-red1916_GD15_BingChen_4

dot-yellow 1916_CCP_4_BingChen  dot-yellow 1916_JPCB1_BingChen_1 dot-yellow1916_TGF2_BingChen_1

dot-yellow1916_TGF3_BingChen_1

1917-no

1917_dingsi_br0312_5-800x180dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0312_51917_dingsi_br0451_3-800x147dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0451_31917_dingsi_br0466_1-800x192dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0466_11917_dingsi_br0568_5-800x168dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0568_51917_dingsi_br0699_7-800x183dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0699_71917_dingsi_br0713_4-800x171dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0713_41917_dingsi_br0766_3-800x301dot-green1917_DingSi_BR0766_31917_dingsi_br1045-800x187dot-green1917_DingSi_BR10451917_dingsi_br1167-800x194dot-green1917_DingSi_BR1167

dot-red1917_GD15_DingSi_1  dot-red1917_GD15_DingSi_2  dot-red1917_GD16_DingSi_1

dot-red 1917_GD16_DingSi_2  dot-red 1917_GD16_DingSi_3  dot-red 1917_GD16_DingSi_4

dot-red1917_GD16_DingSi_5  dot-red 1917_GD16_DingSi_6 dot-red1917_GD17_DingSi_1

dot-yellow 1917_CCP_5_DingSi  dot-yellow 1917_JPCB4_DingSi_1

1918-no

1918_wuwu_br0280_2-800x175dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0280_2 1918_wuwu_br0341_2-800x153dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0341_21918_wuwu_br0387_2-800x197dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0387_21918_wuwu_br0420_2-800x172dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0420_21918_wuwu_br0457_3-800x190dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0457_31918_wuwu_br0606_5-800x142dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0606_51918_wuwu_br0818_5-800x251dot-green1918_WuWu_BR0818_51918_wuwu_br1017-800x242dot-green1918_WuWu_BR10171918_wuwu_br1038_1-800x167dot-green1918_WuWu_BR1038_11918_wuwu_br1038_2-800x173dot-green1918_WuWu_BR1038_21918_wuwu_br1092-800x191dot-green1918_WuWu_BR10921918_wuwu_br1160-800x172dot-green1918_WuWu_BR1160

dot-red1918_GD17_WuWu_1  dot-red1918_GD17_WuWu_2  dot-red1918_GD17_WuWu_3

dot-red1918_GD17_WuWu_4  dot-red1918_GD17_WuWu_5

dot-yellow 1918_CCP_1_WuWu  dot-yellow 1918_CCP_2_WuWu dot-yellow 1918_CCP_7_WuWu

dot-yellow 1918_JPCB2_WuWu_1  dot-yellow 1918_JPCB4_WuWu_1  dot-yellow 1918_JPCB4_WuWu_2

1919-no

1919_jiwei_br0329_2-800x144dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0329_21919_jiwei_br0335_6-800x186dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0335_61919_jiwei_br0339_2-800x182dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0339_21919_jiwei_br0393_4-800x175dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0393_41919_jiwei_br0414_6-800x293dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0414_61919_jiwei_br0416_2-800x218dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0416_21919_jiwei_br0422a_4-800x211dot-green 1919_JiWei_BR0422a_41919_jiwei_br0466_4-800x178dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0466_41919_jiwei_br0677_4-800x205dot-green 1919_JiWei_BR0677_41919_jiwei_br0721_6-800x177dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0721_61919_jiwei_br0725_3-800x184dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0725_31919_jiwei_br0751_2-800x185dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0751_21919_jiwei_br0827_1-800x131dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0827_11919_jiwei_br0904or-yiwei1895-800x191dot-green1919_JiWei_BR0904or YiWei18951919_jiwei_br1049-800x215dot-green1919_JiWei_BR1049

dot-red1919_GD18_JiWei_1 dot-red1919_GD18_JiWei_2  dot-red1919_GD18_JiWei_3

dot-red1919_GD18_JiWei_4  dot-red 1919_GD18_JiWei_5 dot-red 1919_GD19_JiWei_1

dot-red1919_GD19_JiWei_2  dot-red1919_GD19_JiWei_3  dot-red1919_GD19_JiWei_4

dot-red1919_GD19_JiWei_5

dot-yellow 1919_CCP_3_JiWei  dot-yellow 1919_CCP_4_JiWei_1  dot-yellow 1919_CCP_4_JiWei_2

dot-yellow 1919_CCP_6_JiWei  dot-yellow 1919_JPCB1_JiWei_1  dot-yellow 1919_JPCB1_JiWei_2

dot-yellow1919_JPCB3_JiWei_1  dot-yellow 1919_JPCB3_JiWei_2  dot-yellow 1919_JPCB5_JiWei_1

1920-no

1920_gengshen_br0281_2-800x171dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0281_21920_gengshen_br0358_3-800x210dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0358_31920_gengshen_br0420a_4-800x263dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0420a_41920_gengshen_br0550_3-800x140dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0550_31920_gengshen_br0562_5-800x177dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0562_51920_gengshen_br0725a_5-800x202dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0725a_51920_gengshen_br0728_2-800x177dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0728_21920_gengshen_br0828_4-800x186dot-green1920_GengShen_BR0828_41920_gengshen_br0909-800x230dot-green1920_GengShen_BR09091920_gengshen_br0927-800x183dot-green1920_GengShen_BR09271920_gengshen_br1170-800x207dot-green1920_GengShen_BR11701920_gengshen_br1318-800x170dot-green1920_GengShen_BR